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Year : 1999  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 182--7

Central nervous system toxoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome : An emerging disease in India.


Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, 632004, India., India

Correspondence Address:
M J Mathew
Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, 632004, India.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 10514576

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With the incidence of patients infected with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) increasing in India, the central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of the disease will be seen more frequently. The CNS may be primarily afflicted by the virus or by opportunistic infections and neoplasms secondary to the immune suppression caused by the virus. In India, although mycobacterium tuberculosis has been reported to be the most common opportunistic infection, toxoplasmosis may become as common owing to the ubiquitous nature of the protozoan. Since an empirical trial of medical therapy without histopathological diagnosis is recommended, the true incidence of this condition may remain under estimated. The role of ancillary tests such as radiology and serology in the initial diagnosis of this condition remain crucial. This report highlights two patients who were diagnosed to have acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) only after the biopsy of the intracranial lesion was reported as toxoplasmosis. Presently all patients for elective neurosurgery are tested for HIV antigen. The management protocol to be followed in a known patient with AIDS presenting with CNS symptoms is discussed in detail. The value of ancillary tests is also reviewed.






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