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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 54  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 42--46

Physical growth and psychomotor development of infants exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero


1 Departments of Neurology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India
2 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, India

Correspondence Address:
M Dhanaraj
19. Panjaliamman Koil Street, Arumbakkam, Chennai - 600 106, Tamilnadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.24701

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Objective: To evaluates the physical growth and psychomotor development of infants born to women with epilepsy on regular Anti Epileptic Drugs (AEDs). Setting: Govt. Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Tertiary care referral centre, Chennai. Design: Open prospective cohort study with a control group. Materials and Methods: Consecutive women with epilepsy who were on regular anticonvulsants were followed up from their first trimester. Their babies were examined at birth and anthropometric measurements including anterior fontanelle size were noted. They were followed up till one year and periodically evaluated at 1st, 6th and 12th month of age. Development testing using Griffith scale was done at 2nd, 6th and 12th month. An equal number of control babies were also studied using the same scale for one year at the specified intervals. The results in both the groups were compared. Results : 30 babies were enrolled in the case and control group. The AEDs received by the mothers with epilepsy were Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, and Sodium valproate. At birth and 1st month the weight, head circumference and length of case and control babies were equal. At 6th and 12th month reduction in the above 3 parameters were noted in the case babies ( P <0.01). Area of anterior fontanelle (AF) was larger in the study group particularly in those exposed to phenytoin in utero( P <0.001). In the case babies reduction in the sitting, prone and erect progression of the locomotor scores was observed at 2nd month ( P <0.001). Prone progression alone improved by 12th month and other two remained less than the control ( P <0.001). No difference was observed in reaching behaviour and personal/social scores in both groups. Infants exposed to Phenytoin monotherapy had a negative impact on sitting progression. Conclusion : Among infants exposed to AEDs in utero physical growth was equal to that of control at birth but reduced at 6th and 12th month probably due to extraneous factors. The Locomotor scores showed reduction in all areas in 2nd, 6th and 12th month except prone progression which alone improved by 12th month. Phenytoin exposure in utero resulted in large AF and it had a negative impact on sitting progression in comparison with Carbamazepine and Sodium valproate.






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