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Year : 2007  |  Volume : 55  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 111--116

Neuronavigation in a developing country: A pilot study of efficacy and limitations in intracranial surgery

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
B S Sharma
Room No 713, Neurosciences Center, AIIMS, New Delhi - 110 019
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.32780

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Context: Neuronavigation provides a patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) anatomy for preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation. However, the initial and maintenance costs are quite prohibitive, especially in the Indian scenario. Aims : To study the efficacy and limitations of neuronavigation, especially in the Indian scenario. Settings and Design: A prospective nonrandomized study. Materials and Methods : A total of 121 patients underwent intracranial surgery from 2002-2006, in which neuronavigation was used. In this, the initial part, we studied the efficacy and limitations of neuronavigation in the initial 37 patients. The efficacy of the image guidance was graded according to a point's scale in which points were awarded ranging from 0 to 3. Cranial image guided score (IGS) was calculated by the summation of grading during designing the flap/burr hole, delineation of the intraoperative anatomy, navigation and access to the lesion and resection / biopsy of the lesion or completion of the procedure. The scoring ranged from 0-12 and the utility of IGS in cranial neurosurgical procedures was calculated based on the total points for each surgery. Results and Conclusion : Cranial image guidance was useful in a variety of operative steps. Intraoperative approach and navigation was relatively easier with an increase in perception of safety. Limitations of IGS include learning curve, cost and the phenomenon of brain shift. Drawbacks of the study included that this was a subjective rather than a truly objective study and the relatively lesser number of patients. We hope to conduct a larger study with randomization but the question of ethical approval would be a primary concern.


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