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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 549--554

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A in India: A study based on semi-quantitative protein analysis, with clinical and histopathological correlation


1 Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
5 Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mehar C Sharma
Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi -110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.68675

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Background : Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutation in the gene encoding for calpain-3 resulting in total or partial loss of protein. Diagnosis of LGMD2A, the most prevalent form of LGMD, is established by analyzing calpain-3 protein deficiency or CAPN3 gene mutation. Since there is no data from India regarding the incidence of LGMD2A, this study was undertaken. Aims : To study the frequency of LGMD2A in Indian population on the basis of protein analysis by immunoblotting and to correlate pathological and clinical features with protein analysis. Settings and Design : One hundred and seventy-one muscle biopsies of clinically suspected LGMD, unclassified muscular dystrophy or myopathy were analyzed in a tertiary national referral centre for neurosciences. Materials and Methods : Histopathological, immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis of muscle biopsies was performed followed by protein analysis for calpain-3 and dysferlin by immunoblotting. Results : Immunoblot identified 75 patients (43.8%) with calpain-3 deficiency, of which 36 (45%) had complete loss and 39 (55%) had partial loss of calpain-3 protein. In patients with LGMD phenotype alone, the incidence of LGMD2A was 47%. The biopsies of these patients displayed variety of morphological changes ranging from dystrophic pattern with presence of active fibre necrosis, regeneration and lobulated fibres to end stage muscle disease. The mean age of presentation and disease onset was 24 and 18 years respectively. Conclusions : This series of 75 patients is probably the first confirmed cases of LGMD2A (calpainopathy) from India. Our study suggests that LGMD2A is the most frequent form of LGMD in India, similar to the Western data, thus, highlighting the importance of immunoblotting for an accurate diagnosis.






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