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BRIEF REPORT
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 637-641

Concomitant occurrence of subfrontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma: A rare entity


Department of Neurosurgery, L.T.M.G. Hospital, Mumbai, India

Date of Acceptance31-Jan-2010
Date of Web Publication24-Aug-2010

Correspondence Address:
Batuk Diyora
Department of Neurosurgery, L.T.M.G. Hospital, Mumbai
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.68685

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 » Abstract 

Subfrontal extradural hematomas are uncommon, similar are orbital subperiosteal hematomas. Co-occurrence of both following head trauma is very rare. We describe co-occurrence of sub frontal extradural and orbital subperiosteal hematomas in four patients. The presenting symptoms were proptosis and visual complaints. Diagnosis was confirmed on computed tomography in three patients and magnetic resonance imaging in one patient. Frontal craniotomy and superior orbitotomy with evacuation of hematoma resulted in complete resolution of proptosis and visual symptoms. We emphasize on the early diagnosis of this rare condition and also emergency treatment to prevent permanent visual loss.


Keywords: Extradural hematoma, orbital subperiosteal hematoma, sub frontal hematoma


How to cite this article:
Nayak N, Diyora B, Kamble H, Modgi R, Sharma A. Concomitant occurrence of subfrontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma: A rare entity. Neurol India 2010;58:637-41

How to cite this URL:
Nayak N, Diyora B, Kamble H, Modgi R, Sharma A. Concomitant occurrence of subfrontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma: A rare entity. Neurol India [serial online] 2010 [cited 2019 Sep 22];58:637-41. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2010/58/4/637/68685



 » Introduction Top


Extradural hematomas (EDH) account for 0.2 to 6% of traumatic brain injury hospital admissions. [1] The common locations are temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital, and posterior fossa. Sub-frontal is a very rare location. [2] Orbital extradural hematomas, orbital subperiosteal hematomas, are also uncommon. The presenting fearures are proptosis and visual symptoms. Simultaneous occurrence of sub frontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma is extremely rare and only eight such cases have been reported. [1],[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] We report our experience with four such patients.


 » Case Report Top


Retrospective analysis of case records of four patients with sub frontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma managed between January 2002 and December 2005 is presented [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 1 : Clinical profile of reported cases of subfrontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma

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Table 2 : Treatment and outcome in reported cases of subfrontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma

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 » Results Top


These lesions accounted for 0.2 % of all patients with traumatic brain injury operated during the study period. All were males in the second decade, mean age 12.7 years. Three patients presented two weeks after injury and one patient within a few hours. The injury was trivial in three patients and one had fall from a train. All patients had non-axial proptosis, 4 to 6 mm, with eye ball pushed downwards. Periorbital swelling was the presenting feature in one patient while three had history of the same. Periorbital swelling started on an average on the third day of injury and disappeared by day-7. In three patients, actual onset of proptosis was not clear but it became more prominent as periorbital swelling started receding. Two patients had ptoptosis with conjunctival congestion. All patients had visual disturbances, but visual acuity was normal in two patients. Of the other two patients, one had acuity of 6/60 and the other 6/24. Fundoscopic examination was normal in all the patients.

Computed tomography (CT) scan was performed in three patients [Figure 1]a-c and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one [Figure 2]a-c. In all the four patients imaging showed both sub frontal extradural and orbital sub periosteal hematomas. In three patients CT scan showed an orbital roof fracture which was confirmed at operation. In the patient, who had MRI, fracture was evident at operation. The indications for evacuation of the hematoma were progressive visual failure in three patients and deteriorating sensorium in one patient. The size of the subperiosteal hematoma was significant in the three patients with visual symptoms. All underwent superior orbitotomy and extradural hematoma evacuation. The hematoma was solid in two patients, semi solid in one and liquid in one. There was immediate reduction in the proptosis following surgery in cases one and two. By day-10, proptosis disappeared and vision improved to normal in all the patients [Figure 3]a and b. All the patients were asymptomatic at one year follow-up.
Figure 1 : a : Computerized tomography scan of right sub frontal extradural hematoma
b : Computerized tomography scan of right orbital subperiosteal hematoma
c : Computerized tomography scan (coronal view) of right sub frontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma


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Figure 2 : a : T1-weighted MRI (axial view) of left sub frontal extradural hematoma
b : T1-weighted MRI (axial view) of left orbital subperiosteal haematoma
c : T1-weighted MRI (saggital view) of left sub frontal extradural hematoma and orbital subperiosteal hematoma


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Figure 3 : a : Preoperative clinical picture of right sided non-axial proptosis with conjunctival congestion and corneal haziness
b : Postoperative clinical picture showing complete resolution of proptosis and conjunctival congestion


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 » Discussion Top


First description of subfrontal extradural hematoma was by Jacobson. [10] Subfrontal location of EDH is often lethal because it is frequently unrecognized. Source of bleeding is often venous or from small arteries, which explains the slow clinical evolution. [3] It is rarely associated with pupillary abnormalities and other focal deficits. In our series, in three patients, sub frontal extradural hematoma was an incidental finding while the patients were being evaluated by CT/MRI scan for post traumatic proptosis. The other patient was fully conscious at admission, CT scan done after 24 h for deterioration in the conscious level revealed the hematoma. Presenting features of EDH include headache, focal deficits, changes in consciousness. Unusually, proptosis may be the presenting symptom of sub frontal extradural hematoma. [5],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15] The proposed mechanism for proptosis is direct compression of cavernous sinus and ophthalmic vein by the epidural hematoma leading to a retrograde congestion of intraorbital tissues. [11],[13] Direct compression of the periorbital tissues by the hematoma secondary to fracture of the orbit might be another mechanism. [13] In our series, in three patients it was the radiological evaluation for proptosis that revealed the sub frontal hematoma.

Orbital hematomas are rare and may be spontaneous or post-traumatic and are intraorbital or subperiosteal in location. [16] Subperiosteal hematomas are uncommon and mainly result from direct orbital and facial trauma or surgery. [17] They have usually acute onset, but delayed onset has also been described. [18] Proptosis is the presenting symptom in both but non-axial proptosis results from subperiosteal hematoma. Patient often seeks medical attention for proptosis which is often due to orbital pathology and rarely due to sub frontal extradural hematoma. Proptosis due to both orbital and sub frontal extradural hematoma is rare. [1],[3],[4],[6],[7],[9] Of the ten patients reviewed, eight were in the second decade and except one all were male. Magnitude of the trauma was not significant in all the cases. Proptosis was the presenting feature in seven of the ten patients [Table 1] and [Table 2]. We believe that the injury over forehead, mainly the supraorbital margin might have transferred the impact to the orbital roof and resulted in fracture of the same. Fracture of the orbital roof might have resulted in rupture of venous channels together with separation of the periorbita and dura from the bone with slow collection of the venous blood in the extradural space. In three of our patients the proptosis evolved slowly over a period of time and in one patient it was associated with the periorbital swelling and small amount of the blood in the orbit. We believe that a slow seepage of liquefied blood into the subperiosteal space under the effect of the gravity and raised intracranial pressure through paper thin orbital roof results in the orbital subperiosteal hematoma. With the experience of the earlier three patients we made it a policy to ask for orbital cuts in young patients with the sub frontal hematoma, this helped us to pick-up the condition in case 4. High index of suspicion is required as any delays in the diagnosis of subperiosteal hematoma may result in permanent vision loss.

Frontal craniotomy and superior orbitotomy are the standard treatment in a symptomatic patient. Surgical decompression resulted in good vision recovery in all the patients except in the patient who had bilateral subperiosteal hematoma [Table 1] and [Table 2]. However, superior orbitotomy may not be required in patients with no visual symptoms and in whom the diagnosis is established early. In such patients frontal craniotomy alone will be sufficient to reduce the intracranial pressure and prevent the progress of subperiosteal hematoma and also proptossis. [5] In these patients the outcome is generally good without mortality.

 
 » References Top

1.da Costa, Jr LB, de Andrade A, Henriques JG, Cordeiro AF, Maciel Cdo J. Traumatic bilateral intraorbital hematoma associated with epidural hematoma: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2003;61:1039-41.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Greenberg MS. Head trauma. In: Greenberg MS, editor. Handbook of Neurosurgery. Vol. 12. Lakeland: Greenberg Graphics; 1997. p. 690-747.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Bollinger B, Lomholdt LL. Frontal epidural hematoma with ipsilateral exophthalmous. Neuroradiology 1987;29:315.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Bourdon E, Riffaud L, Godey B, Morandi X. Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit associated with a frontal extradural hematoma. J Fr Ophtalmol 1999;22:659-61.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Diyora BD, Shah SG, Sharma AK. Simultaneous occurrence of traumatic sub frontal extradural hematoma with orbital subperiosteal hematoma. Indian J Neurotrauma 2006;3:139-41.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Naja A, Chellaoui A, Ibahioin K, Benhaddou M, Moutawakil A, El Kamar A, et al. Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit associated with sub frontal extardural hematoma. Neurochirurgie 2002;48:101-3.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.O' Neill OR, Delashaw JB, Phillips JP. Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit associated with sub frontal extradural hematoma: case report. Surg Neurol 1994;42:308-11.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Sharma AK, Diyora BD, Shah SG, Pandey AK, Sayal PP, Ingale HA, et al. Orbital subperiosteal hematoma with sub frontal extradural hematoma. J Trauma Injury Infect Crit Care 2007;62:523-5.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Stewart CR, Salmon JF, Domingo Z, Murry AD. Proptosis as a presenting sign of extradural hematoma. Br J Ophthalmol 1993;77:179-80.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Jacobson WH. On middle meningeal hemorrhage. Guy's Hosp Rep 1885-6;43:147-308.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Gruszkiewicz J. Ipsilateral exophthalmous in sub frontal epidural hematomas. Report of four cases. J Neurosurgery 1972;37:613-5.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Sanchez Juan J. Exophthalmos caused by a chronic frontal epidural hematoma. Case presentation. Rev Esp Otoneurooftalmol Neurocir 1969-1970;28:229-35.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Takemura K, Ohnishi H, Nikaido Y. Ipsilateral exophthalmous in chronic extradural fluid -hematoma, case report. No Shinkei Geka 1980;8:755-9.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Umansky F, Pomeranz S. Epidural haematoma and unilateral exophthalmos--a review. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1989;99:145-7.  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.Watts C. Exophthalmos and epidural hematoma. South Med J 1976;69:1539.  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Landa MS, Landa EH, Levine MR. Subperiosteal hematoma of the orbit: Case presentation. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 1998;14:189-92.  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Carrion LT, Edwards WC, Perry LD. Spontaneous subperiosteal orbital hematoma. Ann Ophthalmol 1979;11:1754-7.  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Wolter JR. Subperiosteal hematomas of the orbit in young males: a serious complication of trauma or surgery in the eye region. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1979;77:104-20.  Back to cited text no. 18      


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

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