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CASE REPORT
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 59  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 624-626

Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma formation after radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation


1 Department of Neurosurgery, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan
2 National Hospital Organization Disaster Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan

Date of Submission28-Dec-2010
Date of Decision31-Dec-2010
Date of Acceptance19-Jan-2011
Date of Web Publication30-Aug-2011

Correspondence Address:
Satoru Takeuchi
Department of Neurosurgery, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513
Japan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.84352

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 » Abstract 

We report a rare case of chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma (CEIH) after radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). A 49-year-old male underwent transarterial embolization and surgical excision of a cerebral AVM presenting with cerebral hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was done after 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 14 months after SRS showed a small-enhancing lesion close to the left lateral ventricle and marked white matter edema. At that time a diagnosis of radiation-induced necrosis was made and steroids administered. At 43 months after SRS, MRI showed a small-enhancing mass close to the lateral ventricle with a hematoma cavity. Surgical excision was performed and histological examination revealed that the capsule consisted of an outer collagenous layer and an inner granulated layer with deposits of hemosiderin, which was compatible with CEIH. CEIH should be considered after SRS for AVM.


Keywords: Arteriovenous malformation, chronic encapsulated hematoma, intracerebral, radiosurgery


How to cite this article:
Takeuchi S, Takasato Y, Masaoka H. Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma formation after radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neurol India 2011;59:624-6

How to cite this URL:
Takeuchi S, Takasato Y, Masaoka H. Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma formation after radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neurol India [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Apr 23];59:624-6. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2011/59/4/624/84352



 » Introduction Top


Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is accepted as an effective treatment modality for patients with a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM). However, several delayed complications following SRS for AVM, including parenchymal hemorrhage, radiation necrosis, dural arteriovenous fistula, and cyst formation, have been reported in 3.2-19.8% of patients. [1] Chronic-encapsulated intracerebral hematoma (CEIH) is a rare cerebrovascular disease that behaves as a slowly expanding lesion with a gradual onset. [2] The structure of the capsule in CEIH consists of an outer layer of collagen and an inner layer of granulation tissue. It is well established that CEIH is associated with vascular malformations such as cavernous angioma, venous angioma, or AVM. [2] However, there are few reports of CEIH presenting after radiosurgery for AVM. [3],[4],[5],[6] Herein, we report a rare case of CEIH after SRS for AVM.


 » Case Report Top


A 49-year-old male presented with a right-sided facial numbness. Computed tomography (CT) showed hemorrhage in the left temporal lobe. Cerebral angiography revealed an AVM supplied by the anterior temporal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) [Figure 1]a and b. Transarterial embolization and surgical excision were performed. Follow-up cerebral angiography 8 months after surgery showed no residual nidus. However, another AVM supplied by the cortical brunch of the MCA was detected [Figure 1]c and d. Twelve months after surgery the patient underwent SRS (linear accelerator radiosurgery [LINAC], with a marginal dose of 18 Gy) for the AVM supplied by the cortical branch of the MCA. Follow-up CT 3 days later showed no abnormal findings and 14 months after SRS the patient presented with aphagia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small-enhancing lesion close to the left lateral ventricle and marked white matter edema [Figure 2]a. At that time a diagnosis of radiation-induced necrosis was made. Steroids were administered resulting in transient neurological improvement, whereas the white matter edema observed by MRI fluctuated in extent. 34 months after SRS, the patient presented with numbness of the right upper and lower extremities. CT showed a small hematoma in the left basal ganglia [Figure 2]b. The patient was kept under observation. 43 months after SRS, the patient presented with memory disturbance. MRI showed a small-enhancing mass close to the left lateral ventricle, with a hematoma cavity in the basal ganglia [Figure 2]c and d. Cerebral angiography revealed no visible residual nidus [Figure 2]e. Surgical excision was performed. Description of operative findings Histological examination revealed that the capsule consisted of an outer collagenous layer and an inner granulated layer with deposits of hemosiderin, which was compatible with CEIH [Figure 3]. There was no evidence of residual AVM (to be confirmed) postoperative course was uneventful.
Figure 1: (a,b) Left internal carotid angiogram at onset (a: anteroposterior view, b: lateral view) revealing an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (arrow) supplied by the anterior temporal branch of middle cerebral artery (MCA). (c,d) Left internal carotid angiogram 8 months after surgery (c: anteroposterior view, d: lateral view) showing no residual nidus fed by the anterior temporal branch of the MCA., another AVM (arrow head) supplied by cortical branch of the MCA

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Figure 2: (a) T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) obtained 14 months after radiosurgery showing a small mass lesion close to the left lateral ventricle and white matter edema. (b) Computed tomography scan
obtained 34 months after radiosurgery showing a small hematoma in the left basal ganglia. (c,d) Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MRI obtained 43 months after radiosurgery showing a small enhanced lesion close to
the left lateral ventricle, with the hematoma cavity in the basal ganglia rto show enhANCEMENT plain MRi pictures are reqd. (e) Left internal carotid angiogram (lateral view) 43 months after SRS revealing no visible
residual nidus


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Figure 3: Hematoxylin and eosin photograph revealing that the capsule consisted of an outer collagenous layer (C) and an inner granulated layer (G) surrounding the hematoma cavity (H). Arrows in the slide pointing to C 7 G necessary

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 » Discussion Top


Although CEIH is a rare entity, it has been reported with increasing frequency in recent years. Approximately 60 cases with CEIH have been previously reported. [6] However, to the best of our knowledge only seven cases of CEIH after radiosurgery for AVM, including the present case, [4] have been reported. [3],[4],[5],[6] The clinicoradiological features of all seven cases are summarized in [Table 1]. Interesting features of patients with CEIH after radiosurgery include a male predominance (male:female ratio 5:2), high frequency of basal ganglia involvement (6 of 7 patients), long interval from radiosurgery to diagnosable CEIH formation (mean, 5.4 years; range, 2-11 years), and high rates of presence of residual nidus (all patients received surgical excision). There were differences in types of SRS (Gamma knife (GK) in four patients, LINAC in three patients) and marginal doses (18-22.5 Gy). Nevertheless, further studies on the relationship between types of SRS or dose and the incidence of CEIH are required.
Table 1: Summary of patients with chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation

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The incidence of occurrence of CEIH following SRS for AVM is largely unknown. Maruyama et al. reported a 0.6% incidence of CEIH after SRS for AVM (3 of 500 patients treated with GK), [4] markedly less than that of other complications such as delayed radionecrosis(2.2-9%). [7] However, the mechanisms of CEIH are unclear although similarities to chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) have been reported. [8],[9] The structure of the capsule has been shown to consist of an outer layer of collagen and an inner layer of granulation tissue in both CEIH and CSH. Further, high concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the hematoma of both CEIH and CSH, indicating increased angiogenesis, have been reported. [8],[9] Nakamizo et al. also recently reported that activation of the VEGF pathway, may lead to CEIH formation after radiosurgery for AVM. [6]

We suggest that at least a 10 year careful follow-up is required for patients receiving radiosurgery for AVM, especially those in the basal ganglia with a residual nidus. The management of CEIH is controversial. As CEIH formation after radiosurgery for AVM indicates a high possibility of residual nidus, even if cerebral angiography cannot detect an abnormal lesion, surgical excision should be recommended if possible.

 
 » References Top

1.Yamamoto M, Hara M, Ide M, Ono Y, Jimbo M, Saito I. Radiation-related adverse effects observed on neuro-imaging several years after radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Surg Neurol 1998;49:385-97.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Fiumara E, Gambacorta M, D'Angelo V, Ferrara M, Corona C. Chronic encapsulated intracerebral haematoma: Pathogenetic and diagnostic considerations. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:1296-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Kurita H, Sasaki T, Kawamoto S, Taniguchi M, Kitanaka C, Nakaguchi H, et al. Chronic encapsulated expanding hematoma in association with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Case report. J Neurosurg 1996;84:874-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Maruyama K, Shin M, Tago M, Kurita H, Kawahara N, Morita A, et al. Management and outcome of hemorrhage after Gamma Knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain. J Neurosurg 2006;105:52-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Takeuchi S, Takasato Y, Masaoka H, Hayakawa T, Otani N, Yoshino Y, et al. Development of chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma after radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2009;151:1513-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Nakamizo A, Suzuki So, Saito N, Shono T, Matsumoto K, Onaka S, et al. Clinicopathological study on chronic encapsulated expanding hematoma associated with incompletely obliterated AVM after stereotactic radiosurgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2010 Oct 8. [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Foroughi M, Kemeny AA, Lehecka M, Wons J, Kajdi L, Hatfield R,et al. Operative intervention for delayed symptomatic radionecrotic masses developing following stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations--case analysis and literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2010;152:803-15.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Takeuchi S, Takasato Y. Chronic encapsulated intracerebral hematoma: A rare complication after stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2010 [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hohenstein A, Erber R, Schilling L, Weigel R. Increased mRNA expression of VEGF within the hematoma and imbalance of angiopoietin-1 and -2 mRNA within the neomembranes of chronic subdural hematoma. J Neurotrauma 2005;22:518-28.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]

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