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NEUROIMAGE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 60  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 265-266

Cerebral shading sign in a giant intraparenchymal white epidermoid


1 Department of Neuroradiology, King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College, Mumbai, India
2 Department of Neuropathology, King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College, Mumbai, India
3 Department of Neurosurgery, King Edward Memorial Hospital and Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College, Mumbai, India

Date of Web Publication19-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
Amit Mahore
Department of Neurosurgery, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai - 400 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.96439

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How to cite this article:
Puranik A, Sankhe S, Goel N, Mahore A. Cerebral shading sign in a giant intraparenchymal white epidermoid. Neurol India 2012;60:265-6

How to cite this URL:
Puranik A, Sankhe S, Goel N, Mahore A. Cerebral shading sign in a giant intraparenchymal white epidermoid. Neurol India [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Nov 19];60:265-6. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2012/60/2/265/96439


A 50-year-old female presented with bifrontal headache of two months' duration. Computed tomography (CT) of brain showed a well-defined hyperdense mass (7.3 × 6.2 × 5.6 cm) in the left basifrontal region with density ranging from 90-94 Hounsfield units [Figure 1]a. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain revealed an intra-axial lesion with marked hypointensity on T2-weighted image (T2WI) and hyperintensity on T1-weighted images (T1WI) with minimal perifocal edema [Figure 1]b and c. A small solid component located antero-medially was hypointense on T2WI and isointense on T1WI with heterogeneous post-contrast enhancement. The lesion did not show any restriction of diffusion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) [Figure 1]d. The cyst was non-enhancing [Figure 1]e and f. Based on these imaging features, a diagnosis of a high-protein-containing lesion like craniopharyngioma or neurenteric cyst was postulated. During surgery, a thin-walled intra-axial cyst containing xanthochromic pultaceous material and viscous fluid along with a solid nodule in the antero-medial location were excised. There was no evidence of calcification during surgery. Patient was relieved of her symptoms after the surgery. She has no neurological deficit at 14-month follow-up. On histopathology, the cyst wall consisted of lamellated keratinizing squamous epithelium [Figure 2]a. Foamy histiocytes, foreign-body giant-cells and cholesterol clefts were also seen, suggestive of an epidermoid cyst with focal granulomatous inflammation [Figure 2]b. There was no calcification.
Figure 1: (a) Axial image of plain CT scan reveals a hyperdense lesion in the left frontal lobe; (b) T2 fast spin echo axial and (c) Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) coronal MR images showing homogenously decreased T2 signal; (d) DWI does not reveal restricted diffusion; (e) T1-weighted axial MRI without contrast shows the lesion with homogenously increased T1 signal; (f) T1-weighted axial MRI with contrast shows no significant enhancement in the cyst. The focal T2 hypointense nodule anteriorly shows heterogeneous contrast enhancement and corresponded to granulation tissue on histopathology (White arrow in b, e and f)

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Figure 2: Photomicrograph showing (a) The cyst with an undulating wall which is lined by keratinizing squamous epithelium (arrow) and filled with lamellated keratinous debris (H and E stain ×400); (b) Inflammatory cell infiltrates (*), foamy histiocytes (F) and cholesterol clefts (arrow) are interspersed in fibrotic tissue (H and E stain ×100)

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Intracranial epidermoids are developmental lesions accounting for 1% of all intracranial tumors. [1] These commonly occur in cerebellopontine angle and rarely present as supratentorial, intraparenchymal masses. On CT and MRI, epidermoids are of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) density and are non-enhancing. [2] "White epidermoids" appear hyperattenuated on CT, and can show reversed signal intensity on MRI, with high signal intensity on T1WI and low signal intensity on T2WI. [1],[3] This loss of signal on T2WI due to highly viscous proteinaceous debris is termed as the "Shading Sign". [4] This sign has been previously described in endometriotic cysts having high viscosity due to concentration of protein and iron from recurrent hemorrhage. [4] High protein content alone cannot lead to this appearance as exemplified by simple hemorrhagic cysts which are bright on T1WI but do not show "Shading Sign" as their viscosity is low. [4] The term "Intracerebral Shading Sign" has been described in hemorrhagic metastases of squamous cell carcinoma having high viscosity and proteinaceous ferrous contents, but not with epidermoid cysts. [4],[5] During surgery, we did not find any acute hemorrhage inside the cyst, but we found xanthochromia of contents, which is a hallmark of chronic recurrent hemorrhage. The differential diagnosis for this lesion would include hemispheric craniopharyngiomas and neurenteric cysts. Craniopharyngiomas commonly contain calcifications. Neurenteric cysts with high protein content can be differentiated easily during surgery, as these do not contain pasty material like epidermoid, instead these contain only viscous fluid.Their common location is usually in the midline in front of the brainstem. [6] Restriction on DWI is seen in classic extra-axial epidermoids. It may not be very useful in characterization of intraparenchymal epidermoids which have variations in MR signal intensity due to the different chemical components and physical states of the lesion contents. [7] In our patient, the lesion did not show restriction of diffusion. We also believe that MR spectroscopy may not help in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. Intraparenchymal white epidermoids with the classic "Shading Sign" is an extremely rare presentation. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of supratentorial intra-axial white epidermoids have been reported. Accurate preoperative diagnosis can help prevent possible chemical meningitis during surgery.

 
  References Top

1.Chen CY, Wong JS, Hsieh SC, Chu JS, Chan WP. Intracranial epidermoid cyst with hemorrhage: MR imaging findings. Am J Neuroradiol 2005;27:427-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Ochi M, Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Morikawa M, Ogino A, Hashmi R, et al. Unusual CT and MR appearance of an epidermoid tumor of the cerebellopontine angle. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998;19:1113-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Timmer FA, Sluzewski M, Treskes M, van Rooij WJ, Teepen JL, Wijnalda D. Chemical analysis of an epidermoid cyst with unusual CT and MR characteristics. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1998;19:1111-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Glastonbury CM. The shading sign. Radiology 2002;224:199-201.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Hetts SW, Urban JC, Glastonbury CM, Joelson DW. The shading sign in cerebral squamous cell metastasis. Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:1087-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Osborn AG, Preece MT. Intracranial cysts: Radiologic-pathologic correlation and imaging approach. Radiology 2006;239:650-64.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Chen S, Ikawa F, Kurisu K, Arita K, Takaba J, Kanou Y. Quantitative MR evaluation of intracranial epidermoid tumors by fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging. Am J Neuroradiol 2001;22:1089-96.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  


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This article has been cited by
1 Intracranial white epidermoid cyst with dystrophic calcification A case report and literature review
Krishnan Ravindran,Te Whiti Rogers,Tanya Yuen,Frank Gaillard
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2017; 42: 43
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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