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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 547-548

Intraventricular melanoma metastases


1 Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy
2 Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy
3 Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy

Date of Submission11-Aug-2013
Date of Decision31-Aug-2013
Date of Acceptance13-Oct-2013
Date of Web Publication22-Nov-2013

Correspondence Address:
Alberto Feletti
Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Padova, Padova
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.121949

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How to cite this article:
Feletti A, Magrini S, Manara R, Orvieto E, Pavesi G. Intraventricular melanoma metastases. Neurol India 2013;61:547-8

How to cite this URL:
Feletti A, Magrini S, Manara R, Orvieto E, Pavesi G. Intraventricular melanoma metastases. Neurol India [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Sep 22];61:547-8. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2013/61/5/547/121949


Sir,

Intraventricular spread of cutaneous melanoma is a rare occurrence. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5] We report a case of subependymal metastasis of melanoma presenting with intratumaral bleed presenting 10 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.

A 60-year-old woman presented with a 10-day history of asthenia, depression, and occasional headache and vomiting without any neurological deficit. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a 3 cm mass in the septum pellucidum, consistent with hemorrhage. Blood was also detected in the third ventricle and in the occipital horn of the left lateral ventricle. Contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a T1-, T2-hyperintense mass lesion enlarging the septum pellucidum cavity. An intraventricular left parasagittal nonhomogeneously enhancing mass was also noted [Figure 1]. Medical history revealed a previous surgery in 2000 for melanoma of left knee. During the scheduled follow-up, the patient underwent a second surgery in 2007 to remove a local relapse and resect regional lymph nodes. Brain CT scan in 2001 was reported normal. An MRI performed at another hospital in 2010 showed a 3 mm contrast-enhancing subependymal lesion, which had been overlooked, at the level of the head of the left caudate nucleus [Figure 1]a. The mass was exposed via an interhemispheric transcallosal approach. A chronic hematoma was found splitting the two leaves of the septum pellucidum. After aspiration of the hemorrhage, a dark brown mass was noted. The lesion was adherent to the left caudate nucleus and to the septum pellucidum and it was totally resected. Postoperative course was uneventful. Histology of the lesion showed sheets of neoplastic cells with large eosinophilic cytoplasm and atypical nuclei with large nucleoli, along with hemorrhagic areas. Mitotic activity was high. Immunoreactivity for melanocytic marker HMB45 (+++) was strongly positive, and immunoreaction for cytocheratin marker MNF116 was negative [Figure 1]f-g. Based on these findings, the diagnosis was metastatic melanoma. The patient underwent fractionated radiotherapy with 30 Gy 3 weeks after surgery. A total body CT scan performed after the adjuvant treatment did not show any pathological enhancement.
Figure 1: (a) Axial and coronal contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) images performed 1 year before admission. (b) Axial nonenhanced contrast enhanced scan at the level of the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles, (c) FLAIR axial MR images, (d) nonenhanced T1 MR images, and (e) enhanced T1 MR images showing an enlarged cavum septi pellucidi and a left hemorrhagic partially intraventricular lesion with a blood level in the ipsilateral occipital horn. (f) Hemorrhagic area with sheets of neoplastic cells (E and E, ×100 magnification). (g) HMB45-immunoreactive neoplastic cells (×50 magnification)

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Although melanoma frequently spreads to the brain, intraventricular location has been rarely reported [Table 1]. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5] Despite the possibility that some of the reported primary melanomas can be secondary to a cutaneous melanoma, which ultimately regressed, the occurrence of an intraventricular metastasis is still exceptional. [1],[2],[6],[7],[8],[9] Majority of the reported tumors arises from the choroid plexus and are located in the lateral ventricles. [1],[3],[4],[5] Symptoms are those of elevated intracranial pressure. A minimally invasive neuroendoscopic biopsy followed by adjuvant therapy is the most common reported treatment. [2],[4],[5]
Table 1: Metastatic intraventricular melanoma: Literature review

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Our case is particularly interesting because of imaging features from the primary melanoma diagnosis until the detection of the intracerebral metastasis 10 years later. Although it is well-known that melanoma can spread even after many years, this patient demonstrates how a small brain metastasis can present with bleeding 10 years after the diagnosis of primary cutaneous melanoma. It is also worth noting that the bleeding occurred in the septum pellucidum, though lateral wall of left lateral ventricle was the location of the metastasis. Based on the imaging findings in this case, we postulate that a subependymal metastasis can have a preferential way for local invasion along the ependymal layer. This can explain the fluid collection between the two leaves of the septum pellucidum in our patient.

 
  References Top

1.DasGupta T, Brasfield R. Metastatic melanoma. A clinicopathological study. Cancer 1964;17:1323-39.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Gaab MR, Schroeder HW. Neuroendoscopic approach to intraventricular lesions. Neurosurg Focus 1999;6:e5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Escott EJ. A variety of appearances of malignant melanoma in the head: A review. Radiographics 2001;21:625-39.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Khoshyomn S, Braff SP, McKenzie MA, Florman JE, Pendlebury WW, Penar PL. Metastatic intraventricular melanoma. Case illustration. J Neurosurg 2002;97:726.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Cipri S, Mannino R, Cafarelli F. Metastatic melanoma of the septum pellucidum mimicking a colloidal cyst of the third ventricle. A novel case. J Neurosurg Sci 2009;53:125-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Beatty RA. Malignant melanoma of the choroid plexus epithelium. Case report. J Neurosurg 1972;36:344-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Shuangshoti S, Paisuntornsook P, Netsky MG. Melanosis of the choroid plexua. Neurology 1976;26:656-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Lana-Peixoto MA, Lagos J, Silbert SW. Primary pigmented carcinoma of the choroid plexus. A light and electron microscopic study. J Neurosurg 1977;47:442-50.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Arbelaez A, Castillo M, Armao DM. Imaging features of intraventricular melanoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1999;20:691-3.  Back to cited text no. 9
    


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