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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 63  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 460-461

Magnetic nanoparticle tagged stem cell transplantation in spinal cord injury: A promising approach for targeted homing of cells at the lesion site


1 Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Central Laboratory for Stem Cell Research and Translational Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh, India
2 Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Central Laboratory for Stem Cell Research and Translational Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh; Centre for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Salar E Millat Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi Research Centre, PEH, Shahalibada, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Date of Web Publication5-Jun-2015

Correspondence Address:
Aleem Ahmed Khan
Centre for Liver Research and Diagnostics, Central Laboratory for Stem Cell Research and Translational Medicine, Deccan College of Medical Sciences, Kanchanbagh; Centre for Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Salar E Millat Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi Research Centre, PEH, Shahalibada, Hyderabad, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.158294

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How to cite this article:
Vishwakarma SK, Bardia A, Paspala SA, Khan AA. Magnetic nanoparticle tagged stem cell transplantation in spinal cord injury: A promising approach for targeted homing of cells at the lesion site. Neurol India 2015;63:460-1

How to cite this URL:
Vishwakarma SK, Bardia A, Paspala SA, Khan AA. Magnetic nanoparticle tagged stem cell transplantation in spinal cord injury: A promising approach for targeted homing of cells at the lesion site. Neurol India [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 12];63:460-1. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2015/63/3/460/158294


Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that leads to significant morbidity. It results in a permanent neurological deficit due to damage of motor neurons. The resultant lesion is a barrier for "communication" between the brain and peripheral tissues, both at the effector as well as the receptor level. One of the primary goals of tissue engineering is to bridge the gap created by SCI and reestablish the damaged connections. [1],[2] Stem cell transplantation has a great potential in designing effective therapies for SCI. Despite extensive therapeutic benefits, lack of a noninvasive and efficient cell delivery system, and poor engraftment limits the current role of stem cell therapies in SCI. Application of nanotechnology has already proven its potential in addressing some of these fundamental issues. The development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) has provided a better pathway for the efficient delivery of stem cells at the target location. [3] A recent study by Tukmachev et al. has demonstrated the potential of SPIONPs in facilitating the homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at the lesion site in a rat model of SCI. [4] The study demonstrated the accumulation of SPIO-labeled MSCs in the vicinity of the lesion site from a distance of 10 cm from the site of injury by using an external magnetic system of 1.2T [Figure 1]. This study provides a better hope for future magnetic nanoparticle-based delivery of stem cells at the desired site. However, few of the most important issues in cell-based therapies for SCI are the formation of a glial scar and the regeneration of neurons and glia that undergo cell death soon after injury. Therefore, selection of the appropriate variety of stem cells has to be done for an effective treatment. In the same direction, our center has developed a novel gadolinium-SPIO (Gd-SPIO) magnetic nanoparticle by a soft chemical approach that provides a high biocompatibility. Gd-SPIONPs produce enhanced sensitivity by decreasing the relaxation time of the proton longitudinally (T1) as well as transversely (T2). Thus, it may be a better choice for obtaining a contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The extremely low concentrations of the magnetic nanoparticles prevents the toxic side effects of free gadolinium ions from developing. Apart from its use in the generation of excellent contrast images, Gd-SPIONPs have also shown a paramagnetic behavior due to their much greater proton relaxation per atom of iron than gadolinium. The paramagnetic activity of Gd-SPIONPs in the presence of external magnetic fields is accompanied by its safe degradation and clearance from the biological system (unpublished data). Hence, directed transplantation of neuronal cells labeled with Gd-SPIONPs may be considered as a better strategy for obtaining high contrast imaging and noninvasive cell trapping at the desired site. This combinational strategy of Gd-SPIO labeled neuronal cells for the regeneration of chronically injured spinal cord would overcome the effects of the glial scar, inhibitory molecules, and help in utilizing tissue engineering strategies to bridge the lesion more effectively.
Figure 1: Noninvasive magnetic targeting strategy for delivery of stem cells at the vicinity of the lesion site in a spinal cord injury model

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  References Top

1.
Paspala SA, Vishwakarma SK, Murthy TV, Rao TN, Khan AA. Potential role of stem cells in severe spinal cord injury: Current perspectives and clinical data. Stem Cells Cloning 2012;5:15-27.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Vishwakarma SK, Bardia A, Tiwari SK, Paspala SA, Khan AA. Current concept in neural regeneration research: NSCs isolation, characterization and transplantation in various neurodegenerative diseases and stroke: A review. J Adv Res 2014;5:277-94.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Cheng K, Shen D, Hensley MT, Middleton R, Sun B, Liu W, et al. Magnetic antibody-linked nanomatchmakers for therapeutic cell targeting. Nat Commun 2014;5:4880.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Tukmachev D, Lunov O, Zablotskii V, Dejneka A, Babic M, Syková E, et al. An effective strategy of magnetic stem cell delivery for spinal cord injury therapy. Nanoscale 2015;7:3954-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
    


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