Atormac
Neurology India
menu-bar5 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus
  Users online: 506  
 Home | Login 
About Editorial board Articlesmenu-bullet NSI Publicationsmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Videos Etcetera Contact
  Navigate Here 
 Search
 
  
 Resource Links
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (475 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this Article
   References
   Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1431    
    Printed26    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded42    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 


 
Table of Contents    
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 63  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 622-623

Intrapleural migration of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter


Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA

Date of Web Publication4-Aug-2015

Correspondence Address:
Mohana Rao Patibandla
Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045
USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.162098

Rights and Permissions



How to cite this article:
Patibandla MR, Dudley RW, Wilkinson C C. Intrapleural migration of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter. Neurol India 2015;63:622-3

How to cite this URL:
Patibandla MR, Dudley RW, Wilkinson C C. Intrapleural migration of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter. Neurol India [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Oct 15];63:622-3. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2015/63/4/622/162098


Sir,

Intrapleural migration of the distal catheter of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is a very rare complication. This occurred in a shunt that was placed by the senior two authors (RWRD, CCW) at Children's Hospital Colorado. It was successfully treated with a revision of the distal catheter.

A female neonate with a vein of Galen malformation presented with high-output heart failure and underwent two endovascular embolization procedures. She developed progressive hydrocephalus and a left frontal VPS was performed at the age of 5 months. There were no intra-or postoperative complications. The shunt was clinically and radiologically successful at controlling her hydrocephalus [Figure 1]a. Six months after shunt placement, she presented to the clinic with an asymptomatic swelling around her abdominal incision. On examination, the swelling was minimal, and the catheter was palpable underneath the abdominal skin; she exhibited no signs of elevated intracranial pressure. X-ray performed after her clinic appointment [Figure 1]b showed sufficient length of the catheter in her peritoneal cavity. It also showed a loop of the catheter in her chest. As she was doing well, with an apparently functioning shunt, it was decided to follow her clinically. She returned for routine MRI of her heart and brain several weeks later. The cardiac MRI showed an apparent pleural effusion with the catheter inside her chest. X-ray showed the entire distal end of the catheter coiled up inside her chest [Figure 1]c. In retrospect, X-ray performed immediately after shunt placement showed an unusual curvature of the thoracic portion of the distal catheter [Figure 1]b.
Figure 1: (a) X - ray chest and abdomen performed immediately after initial shunt placement showing sufficient length of the catheter in the peritoneal space. Note the unusual curvature of the thoracic portion of the catheter; (b) X - ray abdomen performed 6 months after the initial shunt placement showing the gradual migration of the catheter into the chest; and, (c) X - ray chest and abdomen performed 4 weeks after the previous radiograph showing the complete migration of the catheter into the chest with an apparent pleural effusion.

Click here to view


The patient had been completely asymptomatic except for upper airway congestion and cough. However, since she was already anesthetized for the MRI, we decided to revise the distal catheter before she awoke. Upon palpation, prior to making an incision, we noted that the existing catheter passed superficial to the clavicle and entered the thoracic cavity between the third and fourth ribs. We aspirated 210 ml of intrapleural cerebrospinal fluid through the existing distal catheter before removing it. A completely new distal catheter was implanted from the valve to the peritoneal cavity. The patient recovered without any further event.

Very few cases of intrapleural migration of shunt catheters have been reported in the literature. [1],[2],[3] Intrapleural migration may be of two types, transdiaphragmatic [1] or supradiaphragmatic. [1],[2],[3] Transdiaphragmatic migration is mainly due to the erosion of the intraperitoneal tip of the catheter through the diaphragm or due to the presence of a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. [1] Supradiaphragmatic migration is caused by tunneling deep to the ribs and passing the catheter through the pleural space. This happened in our case. With each inspiration, the negative intrathoracic pressure will suck the catheter into the pleural space, which also happened in our case. Smaller children with intrapleural distal catheters will generally be symptomatic, as the pleural surface cannot absorb all the cerebrospinal fluid, but our child was either asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic despite the presence of a large amount of intrapleural fluid.

In our case, we are not sure whether we passed the metal tunneling tube for the catheter superiorly deep to the costal margin, through the pleura, and out between the fourth and fifth ribs; or, we passed the tunneling tube inferiorly below the ribs, through the pleura, and out deep to the costal margin. The direction in which we passed the tunneler was not recorded in our operative note. If we had passed the tunneler in an inferior-to-superior-direction (although we are usually extremely careful not to pass it deep to the costal margin or clavicle), this particular time, we were not careful enough. If we had passed the tunneler in a superior-to-inferior direction, we have something else to be extremely careful about - not to pass it between the ribs!

 
  References Top

1.
Lourie H, Bajwa S. Transdiaphragmatic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal catheter. Neurosurgery 1985;17:324-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Akyüz M, Uçar T, Göksu E. A thoracic complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt: symptomatic hydrothorax from intrathoracic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter. Br J Neurosurg 2004;18:171-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Doh JW, Bae HG, Lee KS, Yun IG, Byun BJ. Hydrothorax from intrathoracic migration of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter. Surg Neurol 1995;43:340-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
   
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow