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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1266--1275

Levetiracetam as an antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and hyperalgesic drug

1 Department of PhD, PhD Program in Biological and Health Sciences, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa-Xochimilco-Cuajimalpa, México, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Col. Villa Quietud, México, D.F. 04960, Mexico
2 Department of Neurosciences, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, “Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra”, Secretaría de Salud, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, México, D.F. 14389, Mexico
3 Department of Reproductive Biology, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Campus Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340, Mexico
4 Department of Cell and Tissue Morphology, Instituto Nacional de Pediatria, Col. Insurgentes Sur 3700-C, México, D. F. 04530, Mexico

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A Alfaro-Rodríguez
Neurofarmacology, Department of Neurosciences, Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, “Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra”. Calzada Mexico-Xochimilco 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, Mexico, D.F. 14389
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.193801

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The main purpose of this review was to expound upon the mechanism of action of Levetiracetam (LEV) as an antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and hyperalgesic drug. LEV is a second-generation anti-epileptic drug (AED) that is approved for clinical use as monotherapy and may also be used for adjunctive treatment of patients with seizures. Several researchers have recommended LEV as a treatment option in different diseases causing neuronal damage, and recently, LEV has been used as an antihyperalgesic drug. LEV exhibits favorable characteristics, including a low potential for interaction, a short elimination half-life, and has neither active metabolites nor major negative effects on cognition. This has generated many new research avenues for the utilization of this drug. However, the precise mechanism of action of LEV has not been fully elucidated. In this review, a search was conducted on PubMed, ProQuest, EBSCO, and the Science Citation index for studies evaluating the effects of LEV as an antiepileptic, neuroprotective, and hyperalgesic drug. A total of 32 studies related to the use of LEV suggested different mechanisms of action, such as binding to the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) protein, inhibition of Ca2+ N-type channels, and its presence as a neuromodulator. These studies concluded that the pharmacodynamics of LEV should be viewed as a single pathway, and should not be based on specific molecular targets that depend on the physiological or pathological conditions prevalent at that time.


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Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow