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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 34--44

Role of magnetoencephalography and stereo-electroencephalography in the presurgical evaluation in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy


1 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurology, Amrita Advanced Epilepsy Center, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Kurupath Radhakrishnan
Department of Neurology, Amrita Advanced Center for Epilepsy, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.201680

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In selected patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies (DRFE), who otherwise are likely to be excluded from epilepsy surgery (ES) because of the absence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-demonstrable lesion or discordant anatomo-electro-clinical (AEC) data, magnetoencephalography (MEG) may help to generate an AEC hypothesis and stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) may help to verify the hypothesis and proceed with ES. The sensitivity of MEG is much better in localizing the spiking zone in relation to lateral temporal and extratemporal cortical regions compared to the mesial temporal structures. MEG has a dominant role in the presurgical evaluation of patients with MRI-negative DRFEs, insular epilepsies, and recurrent seizures after failed epilepsy surgeries, and in guiding placement of invasive electrodes. Moreover, postoperative seizure freedom is better if MEG spike source localized cortical region is included in the resection. When compared to subdural grid electrode recording, SEEG is less invasive and safer. Those who are otherwise destined to suffer from uncontrolled seizures and their consequences, SEEG guided ES is a worthwhile and a cost-effective option. Depending on the substrate pathology, there is > 80-90% chance of undergoing ES and 60-80% chance of becoming seizure-free following SEEG. Recent noninvasive techniques aimed at better structural imaging, delineating brain connectivity and recording specific intracerebral EEG patterns such as high frequency oscillations might decrease the need for SEEG; but more importantly, make SEEG exploration more goal-directed and hypothesis-driven.






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