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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1052--1059

Clinical predictors of treatment outcome in North Indian patients on antiepileptic drug therapy: A prospective observational study


1 Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India
2 Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), New Delhi, India
3 Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany
4 Institute of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences (IHBAS), New Delhi, India
5 Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ritushree Kukreti
Genomics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Mall Road, New Delhi - 110 007
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.237000

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Background: Nearly 40%–50% of the individuals fail to respond to first line antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy and 30% are refractory, which calls for the need to recognize predictive markers for treatment failure. This study aims to identify clinical factors predictive of a poor prognosis in patients on AED therapy. Materials and Methods: A prospective follow-up study involving 1056 patients with epilepsy (PWE) aged 5–67 years from North India on phenytoin (PHT, n = 247), carbamazepine (CBZ, n = 369), valproate (VA, n = 271), phenobarbital (PB, n = 50), and multitherapy (MultiT, n = 119) was conducted between 2005 and 2015. Seizure and epilepsy types were diagnosed based on the classifications by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). Patients remaining seizure-free during the past 1 year were assigned to the “no seizure” group and patients experiencing seizure recurrence were assigned to the “recurrent seizures” group. Results: Of the total, 786 (74.4%) patients were successfully followed up with 60% achieving 1-year seizure remission. Seizure recurrence was observed in the remaining 40% of the patients with a high likelihood in patients with the disease onset at ≤5 years of age [55% vs. 38%, P = 0.0016, odds ratio (OR) = 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31–3.13)], in patients with cryptogenic epilepsy than with idiopathic/symptomatic epilepsy (48% vs. 32%, P = 0.0049, OR = 1.61 [95% CI = 1.16–2.24]), and in patients with pretreatment seizure frequency ≥12/year (46% vs. 27%, P < 0.0001, OR = 2.21 [95% CI = 1.61–3.05]). Logistic regression analysis also revealed a significant association of seizure recurrence (P < 0.05) with the three variables. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that an early disease onset, cryptogenic epilepsy, and a higher pretreatment seizure frequency are related to a poor prognosis or poor remission in people with epilepsy (PWE) on AED therapy.






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