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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1655--1666

Epilepsy surgery for focal cortical dysplasia: Seizure and quality of life (QOLIE-89) outcomes


1 Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Neuro-imaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Clinical Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Malla Bhaskara Rao
Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro-Sciences, Hosur Road, Bangalore - 560 029, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.246263

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Aim: Surgery for drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) often requires multiple non-invasive as well as invasive pre-surgical evaluations and innovative surgical strategies. There is limited data regarding surgical management of people with FCD as the underlying substrate for DRE among the low and middle-income countries (LAMIC) including India. Methodology: The presurgical evaluation, surgical strategy and outcome of 52 people who underwent resective surgery for DRE with FCD between January 2008 and December 2016 were analyzed. The 2011 classification proposed by Blumcke et al., was used for histo-pathological categorization. The Engel classification was used for defining the seizure outcome. The surgical outcome was correlated with the preoperative clinical presentation, video encephalogram (VEEG) recording, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), invasive monitoring, surgical findings as well as histopathology and the quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE)- 89 scores. Results: Fifty-two patients underwent resective surgery for FCD (mean age at onset of seizure: 7.94 ± 6.23 years; duration of seizures prior to surgery: 12.95 ± 9.56 years; and, age at surgery: 20.88 ± 12.51 years). The following regional distribution was found; temporal-24 (language-13), frontal-15 (motor cortex- 5), parietal-5 (sensory cortex-4), occipital-1 and multilobar-7. Forty-seven percent of the cases had FCD in the right hemisphere and 53% had FCD in the left hemisphere. Invasive monitoring was performed for identification of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) as well as eloquent cortex in 7 cases and an intra-operative electro-corticography (ECoG) was used in 32 cases. Histopathology revealed the following distribution; FCD IA-4, IB- 1, IC-5, IIA-8, IIB-18, IIIA-13, IIIB -1, IIIC-1 and IIID-1. After a median follow up of 3.7 years after surgery, 84% of patients had Engel's Ia outcome. QOLIE-89 scores improved from 38.33 ± 4.7 (31.14-49.03) before surgery to 75.21 ± 8.44 (56.49-90.49) after surgery (P < 0.001). The younger age of the patient (<20 years) at surgery (P = 0.013), a lower pre-operative score (<9) on seizure severity scale (P = 0.012), focal discharges without propagation on ictal VEEG (P < 0.001), absence of acute post-operative seizures (P < 0.001) and Type II FCD (P = 0.045) were the significant predictors for a favorable seizure outcome. Conclusion: Surgical management of people with DRE and FCD is possible in countries with limited resources. Meticulous pre-surgical evaluation to localize the epileptogenic zone and complete resection of the focus and lesion can lead to the cure or control of epilepsy; and, improvement in the quality of life was observed along with seizure-free outcome.






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