E Learning- Educative practical and clinical videos online - A new way of learning
Correspondence Address: Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.258024
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Neurosurgical training is usually based on traditional sources of education, such as papers, books, direct surgical experience, and cadaveric hand-on courses. In recent times, there have been vast developments in digital and e-learning with additions of high-definition videos, three-dimensional (3D) models, animations, reality simulations, automatisms, etc. These modalities have been integrated into the curriculum to improve skills, acquisition of information, and learning in neurosurgical training like any other branch of medicine. These modalities are now easily available online, making them a new source for advanced learning, information, and skill development. In developing countries, these are of great benefit and provide help to all levels of the medical fraternity. Digital platforms in these settings could also be an alternative solution to bridge the gap between neurosurgical knowledge in the advanced and developing countries.
The importance of videos in the social media communications in the context of health care and neurosurgery is becoming increasingly recognized. Videos are among the most powerful social media tools because they enable visualization of experiences and dialogues and also allow user-generated communications through comments. YouTube is the largest online platform for open access video content and has more than 1 billion users. Apart from this platform, there are various websites provided by the best medical centers in the world, where learning material in digital form is available.
Various sites are available, such as WFNS – Young Neurosurgeons Forum Stream: (www.upsurgeon.com/apps): Online channel of scientific advertisement, hosted by the UpSurgeOn Apps, through which the Young Neurosurgeons Forum (WFNS) posts educational content and neurosurgical events in neurosurgery.
Brainbook (http://www.realbrainbook.co.uk): UK-based platform created to facilitate neurosurgical case-based learning, with the ambition to cover every aspect, from patient and family experiences to the more specific technicalities of the procedures.
NeuroMind (http://www.neuromind.cc): App/website that offers classifications and grading systems to support the clinical decision making in neurosurgery.
UpSurgeOn (www.upsurgeon.com): Library of contents designed to improve theoretical knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurosurgical procedures using 3D mobile technologies.
The Neurosurgical Atlas (www.neurosurgicalatlas.com): Collection of texts, intraoperative images, illustrations, and videos.
Touch surgery (www.touchsurgery.com): A free application (app) platform that simulates over 100 procedures of all the surgical specialties.
The 100 University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Subjects in Neurosurgery (www.neurosurgery.ucla.edu/subjects-in-neurosurgery): Selection of 100 relevant topics developed by the UCLA Department of Neurosurgery as an educational tool for residents of all training levels.
Neurosurgery Survival Guide (NSG) (www.neurosurgerysurvivalguide.com): An app that provides quick references to assist in the decision-making and management of neurosurgical patients.
EANS Academy: Platform containing several types of documents, including abstracts of the congresses, webcasts of the events, and interactive quizzes.
Neurosurgical TV (www.neurosurgical.tv): Live webinars by neurosurgeons from all over the world and podcasts from neurosurgical events worldwide.
3D Neuroanatomy (3DN) (www. 3dneuroanatomy.com): Website providing descriptions and 3D pictures of the main neurosurgical approaches from live surgeries or cadaver laboratory dissections.
The American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) has a YouTube channel that provides access to the Rhoton collections.
Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Surgical Neurology international video atlas.
Recently an video atlas online has also been provided by Neurology India at the website www.neurologyindia.com/videos
Lots of personal websites on YouTube by senior and experienced authors such as Prof Albert Rhoton and Hernesniemi's microneurosurgical videos – a video book of neurosurgery, are available. YouTube is a very common and widely used platform and media channel for these educative videos.,,,
On Facebook, there are >100 neurosciences groups with >100,000 neurosciences specialists from all over the world actively participating every day, sharing their work, experiences, and material.
I have been sharing these educative videos on our YouTube channel, drsureshdugani, since 2010, with 365 surgical videos on microneurosurgical, endoscopic, navigational, stereotactic neurosurgical procedures being exhibited. These videos have been viewed by 2 million people all over the world with 5,100 subscribers. These informative videos are of great help to even patients and their families, friends, and community as a whole in addressing their doubts and educating them about the procedure. In my experience over 10 years, I have found that these online videos are of great help, whenever patient comes with a surgical problem. I advise educated member of the family to visit the site and go through the videos; following the viewing of these videos, many uncomfortable feelings, doubts, and fear about the surgery are relieved, and the patients and their relatives develop more confidence.
The study by Dr. Nardin Samuel et al., in “World Neurosurgery” published in 2017, “YouTube as source of information on neurosurgery” gave very valuable findings.
There are a total of 713 nonduplicate video channels. The overall number of views for all videos was 90,545,164. Videos were most frequently uploaded in 2016 (348), with a 200% increase in uploads compared with the previous year. Of the videos that were directly relevant to clinical neurosurgery, the most frequent video categories were “educational videos” (25%), followed by “surgical and procedure overview” (20%), “promotional videos” (17%), and “patient experience” (16%). The remainder of the videos consisted primarily of unrealistic simulations of cranial surgery for entertainment purposes (20%). The findings from this study highlight the increasing use of video communications related to neurosurgery and show that institutions, neurosurgeons, and patients are using YouTube as an educational and promotional platform, as online communications continue to evolve. In this study, out of 713 channels, the maximum number of video channels (n = 513) were from unknown sources. The next highest number of video channels were from the USA (n = 123;68%); the third highest number of video channels were from India (n = 14;8%). The generators of these channels were educational institutes, universities, medical centers, and senior consultants. The second category of video channels was generated by patients themselves regarding the problems they suffered and their experiences of the disease, its treatment, and the outcomes. The third category of videos was animated videos about the procedures and steps, and simulations in various neurosurgical techniques and procedures. All of these video channels have very significantly helped and improved the quality of training, skills, and management. Thus, they helped to attain a better outcome.,,,
A few notes of caution need to be expressed to the younger neurosurgeons about these videos. The exhibited videos are often the edited ones where some complications as well as unpleasant events that occurred duing the surgery may not have been added; the operative conditions may have been different from that prevailing in the viewer's hospital; the operative experiences and the operative infrastructure may also be different. All these situations need to be factored in while utilizing these online videos for educational purposes.
The material shared is not peer reviewed, so one needs to be careful about the authenticity and clarity of the videos exhibited, before accepting their educational value completely.
Another important factor that one needs to follow is the adherence to very strict privacy protection rules. Thus, written permission from the patients and his/her relatives in front of witnesses, when the videos are published on the Internet media, is mandatory as the material published will be clinical, diagnostic, imaging, and operative data with photos and videos that may occasionally identify the patient concerned. These sections of literature on the internet are going to be helpful, informative and educative but can never become teachers in the true sense.