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 SPECIAL NI FEATURE - OPERATIVE NUANCES: STEP BY STEP
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 270--273

Posterior Quadrant Disconnection for Sub-Hemispheric Drug Refractory Epilepsy


1 Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Sarat P Chandra
Professor and Head of Unit 1, PI and Team Leader, COE Epilepsy and MEG center, In Charge, Core Faculty, Epilepsy and Functional Neurosurgery, Room 7, 6th Floor, CN Center, Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi - 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.284358

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The posterior quadratic epilepsy (PQE) is a form of a multilobar epilepsy, involving the temporal-parietal and occipital lobes. Basically, epilepsies with localized networks to the posterior temporal, posterior parietal, and occipital lobes can benefit from this type of surgery. Gliosis due to perinatal insult and cortical dysplasis and angiomas in Sturge Weber syndrome involving the PQ have often been cited in the literature as the etiology for PQE. However, before considering surgery, it is important to localize the epileptogenic focus through a complete pre operative work up involving; EEG (Electro-Encephalo-Graphy), video EEG, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magneto encephalography (MEG). Historically, these pathologies were dealt with multi-lobar resections, which were associated with high morbidity and mortality, owing to blood loss, especially in young children, hydrocephalus, and hemosiderosis. Based on the theory of networks involved in epileptogenesis, the concept of disconnection in epilepsy surgery was introduced. Delalande and colleagues, described the technique of hemispheric disconnection (functional hemispherectomy) for pathologies like: hemimegalencephaly, rasmussens encephalitis involving the entire hemisphere. The technique has evolved with time, moving towards minimally invasive endoscopic vertical hemispherotomy, described by Chandra and colleagues.[1],[2] The posterior quadrant disconnection (PQD) evolved as a tailored disconnection on similar lines as hemispherotomy, for managing refractory epilepsy arising from the posterior quadrant.[3] The technique and principles involved in the PQD surgery are similar to the those of peri-insular hemispherotomy and has been described in the literature by few authors.[3],[4],[5],[6] The technique of performing PQD will be described here in a step-wise fashion with illustrations supplemented by a surgical video.






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