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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 609--616

A Study of the Clinical Profile, Radiologic Features, and Therapeutic Outcomes in Neurosarcoidosis from Two Tertiary Care Centers in Southern India


1 Department of Neurology, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Medicine, Agram Post, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Neurology, Army Hospital R and R, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Neurology, INHS Asvini, Mumbai, India
5 Department of Radiology, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
6 Department of Pathology, AFMC, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ravi Anadure
Department of Medicine, Agram Post, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru - 07, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.288976

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Background: Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory granulomatous disease affecting multiple organ systems. Neurological manifestations are rare and seen in approximately 5% cases of sarcoidosis. They may commonly precede the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Since there is paucity of Indian literature on this subject, we decided to review the clinical and radiological profile, laboratory abnormalities, treatment and long-term outcomes in our patients with neurosarcoidosis (NS). Methods: The study was done by retrospective review of medical records for all cases diagnosed as NS during the period Jan 2014–Jan 2018. These cases were classified as definite, probable, and possible NS, on the basis of established diagnostic parameters (Zajicek criteria). The follow-up record in these cases ranged from 6 months to 3 years, with special emphasis on monitoring the response to treatment and long-term disability. Results: The cases showed varied clinical abnormalities and imaging findings. Cranial neuropathies and myelopathy were the most common clinical presentations. Optic neuritis was most common cranial neuropathy, followed by facial nerve palsy and lower cranial nerve palsies. Most common magnetic resonance imaging findings were T2 hyperintense parenchymal lesions and meningeal enhancement. There was strong correlation between baseline clinico radiological parameters and long-term outcomes, as evidenced by relatively poor prognosis seen in cases with bilateral optic neuritis, myelopathy and imaging evidence of hydrocephalus, or leptomeningitis. Conclusion: The diagnosis of NS requires a high degree of suspicion, coupled with exclusion of alternate diagnosis. It commonly precedes the onset of systemic sarcoidosis. Central nervous system involvement in sarcoidosis is associated with poor clinical outcomes.






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