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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 640--647

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Adolescent Cannabis Users: Metabolites in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Reflects Individual Differences in Personality Traits and can Affect Rehabilitation Compliance


1 Department of Diagnostics and Pathology, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, Italy
2 Italian Early Warning System on Drugs, Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Rome, Italy
3 IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy
4 Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Florida- Drug Policy Institute, Gainesville, FL, United States
5 Department of Diagnostics and Pathology, University Hospital of Verona, Verona; IRCCS Fondazione Istituto Neurologico “C.Besta”, Milan, Italy

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Franco Alessandrini
Department of Diagnostics and Pathology, University Hospital of Verona, Verona
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.288984

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Introduction: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has shown to play a role in impulsivity, fear, and anxiety. Considering, its high glutamate receptor density, it was chosen as a region of interest to investigate the role of glutamate transmission in drug dependance. We investigated the correlations between personality trait scores and glutamate-to-glutamine (Glx) ratio concentrations in the ACC in order to evaluate if (1) personality traits may increase the probability of drug use and (2) drug use can modify cerebral metabolic pattern contributing to addictive behaviors. Materials and Methods: Glx ratio concentrations in the ACC region were measured with high-resolution multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Personality traits were evaluated utilizing Cloninger's TCI-revised test. Bivariate correlations between personality scores of 28 teens cannabis users (males, mean age = 18.54 ± 2.80) were evaluated. Results: In the ACC, we observed negative correlation between GG concentrations (r = −0.44, P = 0.05) and co-operativeness values (CO), choline (cho), and novelty seeking (NS) values (r = −0,45, P = 0.05). Low levels of glutamate and high levels of cho in the ACC were closely related to the CO and NS personality traits. Conclusions: Metabolic and personality patterns seems to be related to the risk of substance predisposition in adolescents. Our data contribute a possible support to the “top-down” control of the ACC on brain metabolism, due to the particular cerebral metabolic pattern found in “drug-using” adolescents.






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