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Coverpage
March-April 2017
Volume 65 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 237-453

Online since Friday, March 10, 2017

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NI FEATURE - COMMENTARY: THE FIRST IMPRESSION  

The cover page Highly accessed article p. 237

DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201839  PMID:28290376
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NI FEATURE - COMMENTARY: TIMELESS REVERBERATIONS Top

The element fluorine and its effects on human health including its neurological manifestations p. 238
D Raja Reddy
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_108_17  PMID:28290377
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NI FEATURE: JOURNEY THROUGH THE EONS - COMMENTARY Top

Two founders of Bombay Neurosciences: Professor Gajendra Sinh and Professor Noshir Hormusjee Wadia p. 240
Sunil Pandya
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201840  PMID:28290378
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Deep tendon reflex: The background story of a simple technique p. 245
Kalyan B Bhattacharyya
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1177_16  PMID:28290379
Wilhelm Erb and Carl Otto Westphal from Prussia first described the knee jerk in the same issue of the journal Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten in January 1875. This article retraces the history of development of 'deep tendon reflex' as an integral clinical sign during every neurological examination. The history of the evolving shapes of the reflex hammer, the iconic trademark and the ultimate signature of a neuroscientist, is also presented.
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Description of coma and coma arousal therapy in Caraka Saṁhitā and its corollary in modern medicine p. 250
Dhaval Shukla
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1110_16  PMID:28290380
The description of coma and coma arousal therapy in Caraka Saṁhitā is described in sṁtra 24, verses 42–53. It describes the definition of coma, differential diagnosis of coma from other disorders of consciousness, signs of coma, etiology of coma, coma arousal therapy, and emergence from coma. The similarities and differences of these aspects of coma from the perspective of its interpretation in modern medicine are discussed in this article.
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NI FEATURE: THE EDITORIAL DEBATE I-- PROS AND CONS Top

Anaesthesia, chronic pain and brain connectivity p. 253
Mary Abraham
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201843  PMID:28290381
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Role of functional MRI in identifying network changes in chronic pain syndromes p. 255
Uday D Patil
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201853  PMID:28290382
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NI FEATURE: THE EDITORIAL DEBATE II-- PROS AND CONS Top

Traumatic brain injury in India: A big problem in need of data p. 257
Andrew I R Maas
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201848  PMID:28290383
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The role of systematic collection of epidemiological data from India in reducing the burden of traumatic brain injury p. 259
Peter Reilly
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201851  PMID:28290384
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Quantitative research on traumatic brain injury in India: The travails and the new optimism p. 261
Virendra Deo Sinha, Amit Chakrabarty
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201852  PMID:28290385
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Imaging biomarker correlates with oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease p. 263
Rajini M Naduthota, Rose D Bharath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, Ravi Yadav, Jitender Saini, Rita Christopher, Pramod Kumar Pal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_981_15  PMID:28290386
Background: While oxidative stress (OS) may be one of the crucial factors determining the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), its correlation with gray matter (GM) atrophy is not known. Aims: To determine the GM volume (GMV) changes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and correlation with OS marker serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in PD. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two patients with PD were clinically evaluated and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T MRI scanner using a 32-channel head coil. Lipid peroxidation product MDA levels were measured by spectrophotometry. MDA levels and regional GM differences using VBM were compared with 72 healthy controls. Results: The mean age of the patients was 51.3 ± 10.6 years and that of controls was 50.8 ± 10.4 years. The mean age of onset of symptoms in PD was 45.2 ± 11.3 years. In PD, serum MDA level was significantly higher than that in controls (0.592 ± 0.89 μmol/l vs. 0.427 ± 0.055 μmol/l; P < 0.0001). Compared to controls, patients had greater regional GM atrophy in all the brain lobes (P < 0.001, uncorrected). A significant positive correlation was found between GMV and MDA in the caudate nucleus (CN) and posterior cingulate gyrus (PC) in the patient group (P < 0.001, uncorrected). Conclusions: We observed GM atrophy in all major brain lobes of patients when compared to controls. Only in the patient group, a significant positive correlation was observed in CN and PC with MDA. These findings suggest that, even though the whole brain is affected in PD, some of the non-substantia nigra regions of the brain, such as CN, may have some differential compensatory mechanism, which are preserved from oxidative damage.
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COMMENTARY Top

Oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease p. 269
Charulata Savant Sankhla
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201842  PMID:28290387
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

The evaluation of sexual function in women with stroke p. 271
Halim Yilmaz, Haluk Gumus, Sema D Yilmaz, Halil E Akkurt, Faruk O Odabas
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1102_15  PMID:28290388
Background: Although very common, sexual dysfunction is a neglected disorder in women with stroke. Aim: To investigate the physical, psychological and sexual changes in women with stroke, and to determine the factors related to these changes. Settings and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at a tertiary care university hospital. Material and Methods: A total of 112 women (51 stroke patients, 61 healthy controls) were included in the study. The independence level of stroke patients was evaluated with the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS); the severity of stroke and the clinical status of patients after stroke, with the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS); depression levels, with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); and, patients' sexual function, with the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI). Statistical Analysis: The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, the student's t, the Chi-square and the Mann- Whitney-U tests, and the Spearman's correlation analysis were performed in the appropriate conditions. Results: While the scores of total FSFI and FSFI subgroups in women with stroke were lower than in healthy controls, BDI scores were found to be higher than those of controls. A negative correlation was detected between the total FSFI scores, and BDI, MRS, NIHSS, age, duration of marriage and number of children in women with stroke, while a positive correlation was found between total FSFI scores and educational level. Conclusion: Sexual dysfunction is a commonly seen disorder in women with stroke, and is influenced by the severity of disease, level of dependence and accompanying depression. Therefore, evaluation of sexual dysfunction, depression and levels of physical function should be done in women with stroke during their follow up.
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COMMENTARY Top

Sexual dysfunction in women post stroke: The hidden morbidity p. 277
Santosh K Chaturvedi, Poornima Bhola
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201880  PMID:28290389
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in Indian population: An 8-year follow-up study p. 279
Subhash Kaul, Suvarna Alladi, K Rukmini Mridula, V C S Srinivasarao Bandaru, Matapathi Umamashesh, Darapureddy Anjanikumar, Palli Lalitha, R Chandrasekhar
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_523_16  PMID:28290390
Background: Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS) is a marker for cerebrovascular disease, coronary atherosclerosis, and death. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of ACAS in the Indian population, and to correlate ACAS with other vascular risk factors. Materials and Methods: We prospectively recruited 1500 individuals who were older than 40 years and asymptomatic for cerebrovascular disease between June 2003 and December 2014. Evaluation of vascular risk factors was done for all the participants. Color Doppler of bilateral carotid arteries was performed for all the participants. Carotid stenosis of 1–49% and ≥50% was considered to be mild and significant stenosis, respectively. Results: There were 1016 (67.7%) men, with a mean age of 58.1 ± 10.6 years (age range: 40–98 years). The prevalence of significant carotid stenosis was 5.2%. After adjustment using multiple regression analysis, age >70 years (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.48–2.74), hypertension (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.11–2.96), diabetes (OR: 2.3; 95%CI: 1.45–3.89), smoking (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.18–6.03), dyslipidemia (OR: 4.0; 95% CI: 2.52–6.63), history of migraine (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.54–9.13), history of periodontitis (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.90–5.68), and family history of stroke (OR: 7.1; 95% CI: 4.20–12.2) were significantly associated with >50% stenosis. Duration (>15 years) of hypertension (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.33–6.43), diabetes (OR: 6.2; 95% CI: 3.41–11.3), and smoking (OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 2.20–12.1) markedly worsened the risk. During the 8-year follow up, 14 participants (1.4%) with mild stenosis and 3 participants (4.7%) with significant stenosis developed stroke. Conclusions: Our study suggests that 5.2% of asymptomatic individuals > 40 years of age harbor significant extracranial carotid artery disease. Presence of multiple vascular risk factors markedly increases the risk of carotid stenosis.
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Effect of propofol anesthesia on resting state brain functional connectivity in Indian population with chronic back pain p. 286
Kamath Sriganesh, Rakesh Balachandar, Bhavani Shankara Bagepally, Jitender Saini, GS Umamaheswara Rao
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_782_15  PMID:28290391
Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in healthy volunteers have shown alterations in brain connectivity following anesthesia as compared to the awake state. It is not known if the anesthesia-induced changes in brain connectivity are different in a pathological state. This study aims to evaluate changes in the resting state functional connectivity in the brain, after propofol anesthesia, in patients with chronic back pain (CBP). Materials and Methods: Fourteen adults with CBP were included in this prospective study over 6 months. After excluding structural brain pathology, a resting state fMRI was performed in the awake state, and the sequences were repeated after propofol anesthesia. The primary outcome measure was change in resting state connectivity after propofol. Student's t-test was performed between the pre and post-propofol sedation data of all patients with total brain volume as covariates of interest. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-propofol changes in cardiorespiratory parameters. Results: There were 8 male and 6 female patients in the study, and the mean age of the study population was 46.9 ± 11.3 years. Propofol sedation resulted in an increased strength of functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and thalamus in patients with CBP, whereas there was a generalized decrease in functional integration within the large scale brain networks. The changes in cardiorespiratory parameters before and after propofol administration were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Strengthening of functional connectivity was seen between PCC and thalamus with decrease in large scale brain networks following propofol anesthesia in patients with CBP. These changes are similar to those previously described in normal volunteers.
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Potential for differentiation of glioma recurrence from radionecrosis using integrated 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: A prospective evaluation p. 293
Shanti K Sogani, Amarnath Jena, Sangeeta Taneja, Aashish Gambhir, Anil K Mishra, Maria M D’Souza, Sapna M Verma, Puja P Hazari, Pradeep Negi, Ganesh K. R. Jadhav
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_101_16  PMID:28290392
Purpose: To assess the utility of 18F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) in distinguishing recurrence from radionecrosis. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients (25 males, 7 females) of glioma who had already undergone surgery/chemoradiotherapy and had enhancing brain lesions suspicious of recurrence were evaluated using integrated 18F-FET PET/MRI, and followed up with histopathology or clinical follow-up and/or MRI/PET/MRI imaging. Manually drawn regions of interest over areas of maximal enhancement or FET uptake were used to calculate tumor to background ratios [TBRmax, TBRmean], choline: creatine ratio [Cho: Cr ratio], normalized relative cerebral blood volume [N rCBVmean] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADCmean]. Correlations were evaluated using Pearson's coefficient. Accuracy of each parameter was calculated using independent t-test and receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis while utility of all four parameters together using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for differentiating recurrence vs. radionecrosis was evaluated. Positive histopathology and imaging/clinical follow up served as the gold standard. Results: Twenty-four of the 32 patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease and 8 with radiation necrosis. Significant correlations were observed between TBRmaxand N rCBVmean (ρ =0.503; P = 0.003), TBRmean, and N rCBVmean (ρ =0.414; P = 0.018), TBRmaxand ADCmean (ρ = −0.52; P = 0.002), and TBRmeanand ADCmean(ρ = −0.518; P = 0.002). TBRmax, TBRmean, ADCmean, Cho: Cr ratios, and N rCBVmeanwere significant in differentiating recurrence from radiation necrosis with an accuracy of 94.1%, 88.2%, 80.4%, 96.4%, and 89.9%, respectively. MANOVA indicated that combination of all parameters demonstrated better evaluation of recurrence vs. necrosis than any single parameter. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity using all MRI parameters were 93.75%, 96%, and 85.7%, and using all FET PET/MRI parameters was 96.87%, 100%, and 85.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Synergetic effect of multiple MR parameters evaluated together in addition to FET PET uptake highlights the fact that integrated 18F-FET PET/MRI might have the potential to impact management of patients with glioma by timely and conclusive recognition of true recurrence from radiation necrosis.
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COMMENTARY Top

Hybrid PET/MR imaging for evaluation of recurrence in gliomas: Standard of care or luxury? p. 302
BR Mittal, Shashank Singh
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201846  PMID:28290393
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

A systematic review of quantitative research on traumatic brain injury in India p. 305
Benjamin B Massenburg, Deepa K Veetil, Nakul P Raykar, Amit Agrawal, Nobhojit Roy, Martin Gerdin
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_719_16  PMID:28290394
Introduction: Over a quarter of the world's trauma deaths occur in India, with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as the leading cause of death and disability within trauma. With little known about TBI in India, we set out to do a systematic review to characterize the quantitative literature on TBI in India. Materials and Methods: The following databases were searched from their inception to December 31, 2015: PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and the World Health Organization's Global Health Library, using the keywords: neurotrauma, brain injury, traumatic brain injury, TBI, head injury, and India. Articles were screened by two independent reviewers, with disagreements arbitrated by discussion or a third reviewer. Results: A total of 72 manuscripts were included, encapsulating 19962 patients over 27 years in 14 states of India. The sample-size-weighted mean age was 31.3 years, male-to-female ratio was 3.8:1, and sample-size-weighted mean in-hospital mortality was 24.6%. Age and mortality did not change significantly over time. Road traffic accidents (55.5%) and falls (29.2%) were the most commonly reported mechanisms of injury for TBI in India. The mean quality of reporting on TBI in India was 65.7%, according to the appropriate EQUATOR guideline score. Conclusion: The quality of reporting of quantitative studies published on TBI in India is low, and future methodological excellence should be ensured. The demographics and outcomes identified can be used as an epidemiological baseline for future research on TBI in India. Future research can build upon this platform to develop and refine context-appropriate policy recommendations and treatment protocols.
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NI FEATURE: PATHOLOGY PANORAMA - COMMENTARY Top

Indian Society of Neuro-Oncology consensus guidelines for the contemporary management of medulloblastoma p. 315
Tejpal Gupta, Chitra Sarkar, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Sandip Chatterjee, Neelam Shirsat, Dattatreya Muzumdar, Sona Pungavkar, Girish Chinnaswamy, Rakesh Jalali
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201841  PMID:28290395
Introduction: The high success rate in the management medulloblastoma achieved in the western world is not exactly mirrored in developing countries including India. Socio-demographic differences, health-care disparity, and lack in uniformity of care with resultant widespread variations in the clinical practice are some of the reasons that may partly explain this difference in outcomes. Patients with medulloblastoma require a multi-disciplinary team approach involving but not limited to neuro-radiology, neurosurgery; neuropathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, pediatric medical oncology and rehabilitative services for optimizing outcomes. Methods: The Indian Society of Neuro-Oncology (ISNO) constituted an expert multi-disciplinary panel with adequate representation from all stakeholders to prepare national consensus guidelines for the contemporary management of medulloblastoma. Results: Minimum desirable, as well as preferable though optional recommendations (as appropriate), were developed and adopted for the pre-surgical work-up including neuroimaging; neurosurgical management including surgical principles, techniques, and complications; neuropathology reporting and molecular testing; contemporary risk-stratification in the molecular era; appropriate adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy and chemotherapy); and follow-up schedule in medulloblastoma. Conclusions: The current document represents a broad consensus reached amongst various stakeholders within the neuro-oncology community involved in the contemporary curative-intent management of children with medulloblastoma. It provides both general as well as specific guidelines and recommendations to be adopted by physicians and health care providers across India to achieve uniformity of care, improve disease-related outcomes, and compare results between institutions within the country.
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NI FEATURE: THE QUEST - COMMENTARY Top

Three-dimensional visualization of intracranial tumors with cortical surface and vasculature from routine MR sequences p. 333
Zafar Neyaz, Rajendra V Phadke, Vivek Singh, Chaitanya Godbole
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1167_16  PMID:28290396
The simultaneous three-dimensional (3D) visualization of intracranial tumors, brain structures, skull, and vessels is desired by neurosurgeons to create a clear mental picture of the anatomical orientation of the surgical field prior to the surgical intervention. Different anatomical and pathological components are usually visualized separately on different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences; however, during surgery, they are tackled simultaneously. Another problem is that most present day MR workstations enable review of two-dimensional (2D) slices only with limited postprocessing options. With recent software developments, a simultaneous 3D visualization simulating the real surgical field is possible using commercial or open source softwares. The authors have reviewed the important concepts and described a technique of interactive 3D visualization from routine 3D T1-weighted, MR angiography, and MR venography sequences using open source FSL (Functional MRI of the brain software library) and BrainSuite softwares.
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NI FEATURE: CENTS (CONCEPTS, ERGONOMICS, NUANCES, THERBLIGS, SHORTCOMINGS) - COMMENTARY Top

Endoscopic technique for single-stage anterior decompression and anterior fusion by transcervical approach in atlantoaxial dislocation p. 341
Yad Ram Yadav, Shailendra Ratre, Vijay Parhihar, Amitesh Dubey, Neil M Dubey
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1276_16  PMID:28290397
Although posterior approaches are being used frequently in most atlantoaxial dislocations (AAD), anterior decompression is also required in some patients in whom the C1-2 dislocation is not properly reduced by the posterior approach. Transnasal and transoral approaches need an additional posterior approach to perform atlantoaxial fusion. They also have an added risk of infection. The endoscopic transcervical approach can be used for single-stage cervical decompression and stabilization that includes an odontoidectomy and anterior fusion. It can be used both in reducible and irreducible AAD. Patients with a high basilar invasion, traumatic or other lesions involving the C1 or C2 facet joint, reducible AAD with Chiari malformation, and patients with a large mandible or a mandible angle lying below the C3 level even after the maximum neck extension, should not be subjected to this procedure. Preoperative X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan with angiogram, and magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral region should be done to assess the dislocation. The early results of an endoscopic transcervical approach were found to be safe and effective for decompression and fusion in our experience. There was no permanent complication. The procedure avoids a two-stage surgery; thus, odontoidectomy, if needed, can be performed in addition to the C1-2 fusion in a single stage.
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NI FEATURE: CITADELS SCULPTING FUTURE - COMMENTARY Top

Government Medical College Trivandrum – Fifty years of Neurosurgery in Kerala state p. 348
Anil Kumar Peethambaran, Raj S Chandran
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201847  PMID:28290398
The Department of Neurosurgery founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India. The Department of Neurosurgery was founded in the Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala, the first teaching hospital in Kerala state, in the year 1951, and is celebrating its 50th anniversary. The history of Neurosurgery in this Institute is synonymous with the history of Neurosurgery in the state as this was the first medical college to start a Neurosurgery department within the state.The students after undergoing their rigorous training in the department, went on to establish advanced neurosurgical centres throughout Kerala and in several other parts of the country. This article traces the illustrious history of the Department of Neurosurgery, Trivandrum Medical College and also of the eminent faculty members and residents, who helped in advancing the standards of Neurosurgery in the region as well as the rest of India.
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NI FEATURE: THE FOURTH DIMENSION - COMMENTARY Top

A summary of some of the recently published, seminal papers in neuroscience p. 360
Paritosh Pandey, Mazda K Turel, Manjul Tripathi, Ravi Yadav, PR Srijithesh, Aastha Takkar, Sahil Mehta, Kuntal K Das, Anant Mehrotra
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201850  PMID:28290399
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NI FEATURE: FACING ADVERSITY…TOMORROW IS ANOTHER DAY! - LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Role of 5HT1A and 5HT2A receptors and default mode network in olanzapine-induced somnambulism p. 373
Sourav Das, Ravi Gupta, Mohan Dhyani, Divyashree Sah, Jitamanyu Maity
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_481_15  PMID:28290400
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Extraosseous cement leakage after vertebroplasty producing intractable low back pain p. 375
Boby V Maramattom
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_591_16  PMID:28290401
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Inadequate expansion lead to delayed Enterprise stent migration p. 377
Li Li, Peng Li, Liangfu Zhu, Tianxiao Li
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_946_15  PMID:28290402
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Intraprocedural rupture during catheter angiogram in a case of aggressive dural arteriovenous fistula p. 378
Sweta Swaika, Santhosh Kumar Kannath, Jayadevan Enakshy Rajan
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_59_16  PMID:28290403
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Massive epistaxis resulting from radiation-induced internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm p. 380
Pouya Nazari, Lee A Tan, Joshua T Wewel, Roham Moftakhar, Manish K Kasliwal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1259_15  PMID:28290404
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Pedicle screw loosening – reassessing short segment fixation in dorsolumbar junctional fractures p. 382
Prasad Krishnan, Rajaraman Kartikueyan, Sachinkumar M Patel, Subhasis Deb
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1156_15  PMID:28290405
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

Young onset Parkinsonism in a patient with familial central core disease p. 386
P Samuel Joseph, DM Syam Krishnan, Gayathri Narayanappa, Muralidharan Nair
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_746_15  PMID:28290406
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Improvements in non-motor and motor fluctuations in parkinson's disease after intermittent apomorphine treatment p. 388
Sevda Erer, Mehmet Zarifoglu
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_437_15  PMID:28290407
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An unusual cause of bilateral thalamic lesions p. 389
Satish Bawri, Moromi Das, Munindra Goswami, Ashok K Kayal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_293_16  PMID:28290408
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Neurological manifestation of Erdheim Chester disease: A series of 3 patients p. 392
Bhavesh Trikamji, Shrikant Mishra
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1120_15  PMID:28290409
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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis during relapse of herpes simplex encephalitis in a young boy: A brief review of literature p. 393
Varsha A Patil, Shilpa D Kulkarni, Anaita Udwadia-Hegde, Rafat J Sayed, Meenal Garg
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1218_15  PMID:28290410
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Hemichorea secondary to non-ketotic hyperglycemia as the presenting manifestation of diabetes mellitus p. 397
Lulup Kumar Sahoo, Ashok Kumar Mallick, Geeta Mohanty, Kali Prasanna Swain, Srikanta Kumar Sahoo
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1180_15  PMID:28290411
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Anti-NMDAR encephalitis combined with a subependymoma p. 398
Duan Xiao, Yihui Lin, Xiaofeng Wang, Canhong Yang, Xiaoyu Huang, Bo Fu, Qingzhu Wei, Tianming Lü
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1348_15  PMID:28290412
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Persistent trigeminal artery trunk giant aneurysm and its management p. 400
Vivek Gupta, Anuj Prabhakar, Chirag K Ahuja, Ankur Bajaj, Sunil K Gupta, N Khandelwal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_259_16  PMID:28290413
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Primary central nervous system dural-based anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Diagnostic considerations, prognostic factors, and treatment modalities p. 402
Mayur V Kaku, Amey R Savardekar, Yasha Muthane, A Arivazhagan, Malla Bhaskara Rao
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1272_15  PMID:28290414
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A case of infectious intracranial dissecting aneurysm p. 405
Xiaoli Zhong, Xiaobo Li, Si Shao, Xiaoping Yang, Xuejun Fan
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1223_15  PMID:28290415
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Malignant temporal muscle myofibroblastoma with an early recurrence in a child p. 408
Saraj K Singh, Amol A Raheja, Aman K Jagdevan, Pankaj K Singh, Suvendu Purkait, Vaishali A Suri
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1241_15  PMID:28290416
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'Effaced bilateral retromaxillary fat pad sign' in bilateral masseter and temporalis muscle hypertrophy p. 410
Kamble J Harsha, K Parameswaran
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1196_15  PMID:28290417
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Dropped head syndrome in brachial plexus injury: A technical note p. 411
Ashish Kumar, Dacosta Leodante
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1160_15  PMID:28290418
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Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome p. 413
Charan S Jilowa, Parth S Meena, Jitendra Rohilla, Mahendra Jain
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1004_15  PMID:28290419
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Occult sacral meningocoele associated with spinal dysraphism: Report of an unusual case and a review of literature p. 414
Ravi Dadlani, Aditya A Atal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_599_16  PMID:28290420
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Rapid spontaneous regression of a lumbar juxta-facet cyst p. 417
Necati Ucler, Sait Ozturk, Arif Gulkesen, Metin Kaplan
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_596_16  PMID:28290421
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Craniopharyngioma with malignant transformation: Review of literature p. 418
S Narla, J Govindraj, K Chandrasekar, P Sushama
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_528_16  PMID:28290422
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A rare case of giant solitary calvarial plasmacytoma: Can it grow bigger than this? p. 420
Dipanker Singh Mankotia, Sachin A Borkar, Kavneet Kaur, Vaishali Suri, Bhawani S Sharma
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_27_16  PMID:28290423
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Cerebellar liponeurocytoma presenting as multifocal bilateral cerebellar hemispheric mass lesions p. 422
Laxminadh Sivaraju, Saritha Aryan, Nandita Ghosal, Alangar S Hegde
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1379_15  PMID:28290424
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NEUROIMAGES Top

Vein of Trolard thrombosis p. 425
Mo Yang, Sabrina Yum, Li Yang
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_670_16  PMID:28290425
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Rapidly progressive dementia with myoclonus: Not Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease p. 426
M Saini, NM Varghese, Khin Hnin Su Wai, NK Loh
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_57_16  PMID:28290426
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Posterior inferior cerebellar artery susceptibility sign in lateral medullary syndrome p. 427
BM Krishna Vadana, R Adhithyan, C Kesavadas, Veerendra Malik
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_465_16  PMID:28290427
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Multiple mirror image cervical neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis type 1 p. 428
Saraj K Singh, Dipankar S Mankotia, Sachin A Borkar, Uditi D Gupta
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1370_15  PMID:28290428
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Nuclear third nerve palsy as a presenting manifestation of breast carcinoma p. 430
Biplab Das, Vinny Wilson, Sahil Mehta, Balan Gaspar, Vivek Lal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1349_15  PMID:28290429
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Bilateral retropharyngeal internal carotid artery: A rare and potentially fatal anatomic variation p. 431
Mahesh Prakash, S Abhinaya, Ajay Kumar, Niranjan Khandelwal
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1210_15  PMID:28290430
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

The 'reverse' evaluation! p. 433
Shashwat Mishra
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1253_16  PMID:28290431
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“Magister neurochirurgiae”: A 3-year 'crash course' or a 5-year 'punctilious pedagogy'? p. 434
George C Vilanilam, HV Easwer, Girish R Menon, Vikram Karmarkar
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_1175_16  PMID:28290432
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Author's Reply: Neurosurgical training and evaluation – Need for a paradigm shift p. 438
Ajit K Banerji
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201879  PMID:28290433
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Hyperdense lenticulostriate sign…or stroke following minor trauma p. 439
Mahesh Kamate
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_923_16  PMID:28290435
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Neurological problem due to Zika virus infection: What should be discussed? p. 439
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_912_16  PMID:28290434
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Author's Reply: Zika virus: Some interesting points p. 440
Adrija Hajra, Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, Shyamal Kumar Hajra
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201875  PMID:28290436
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Stroke health and research initiatives – Advanced stroke care model and future roadmap p. 441
Shriram Varadharajan
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_884_16  PMID:28290437
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Author's Reply: National program and telemedicine services for stroke care p. 442
M Vasantha Padma, Sudhir Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201873  PMID:28290438
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Organized neurosurgery: Additional facts p. 443
K Rajasekharan Nair
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201844  PMID:28290439
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Author's Reply: Organized neurosurgery p. 445
Chandrashekhar E Deopujari
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201845  PMID:28290440
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BOOK REVIEW Top

Arthur conan doyle: The case of lady sannox. medical mysteries and other adventures p. 448
Sunil Pandya
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.201849  
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OBITUARY Top

Dr. GM Taori p. 450
Guru D Satyarthee, Bhawani S Sharma, Lokendra Singh
DOI:10.4103/neuroindia.NI_858_16  PMID:28290441
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