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LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1185--1187

Chronic pachymenigitis with dural venous sinus thrombosis: An unusual presentation of cranial melioidosis

Raghavendra Nayak1, Bimal Patel2, Krishnaprabhu Raju1,  
1 Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Pathology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Krishnaprabhu Raju
Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore - 632 004, Tamil Nadu
India




How to cite this article:
Nayak R, Patel B, Raju K. Chronic pachymenigitis with dural venous sinus thrombosis: An unusual presentation of cranial melioidosis.Neurol India 2018;66:1185-1187


How to cite this URL:
Nayak R, Patel B, Raju K. Chronic pachymenigitis with dural venous sinus thrombosis: An unusual presentation of cranial melioidosis. Neurol India [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 Jan 22 ];66:1185-1187
Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2018/66/4/1185/237015


Full Text



Sir,

A 23-year old student presented with a 9-month history of progressive diplopia on looking towards the left and a 6-month history of decreased hearing in the left ear. He was initially evaluated for the above complaints at another center where he was diagnosed to be having left sigmoid and transverse sinus thrombosis with left mastoiditis and was treated with antituberculous therapy, steroids, and anticoagulants; however, there was no improvement in the symptoms.

Examination showed the left third cranial nerve (CN) palsy and paresis of the left seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth CNs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain with contrast showed pachymeningeal thickening and abnormal enhancement along the left temporal region, the petrous apex, and within the left mastoid air cells [Figure 1]. Magnetic resonance venogram (MRV) showed chronic partial thrombosis of the left transverse-sigmoid sinus and left jugular vein. Differential diagnosis of infective etiologies such as fungal and mycobacterial tuberculosis, inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis and immunoglobulin G4 disease, and malignant conditions such as lymphomas were considered. As the patient showed gradual deterioration on steroids, antituberculous, and anticoagulant medications, a surgical biopsy was undertaken, which was suggestive of chronic meningitis [Figure 2]. Cultures from the biopsy grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. He was treated with 2 g intravenous ceftazidime every 6 hours for 6 weeks, followed by an oral cotrimoxazole regimen for 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, there was a dramatic improvement in the symptoms, and MRI brain showed complete disappearance of meningeal enhancement and clearance of the left mastoid enhancement [Figure 3].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}

Melioidosis is a systemic disease associated with abscesses in multiple organs caused by B. pseudomallei,[1] which is a Gram-negative soil-dwelling organism. Although it is endemic in the southeast Asian countries and northern Australia, neurologic involvement is accounted for in only 3% of all the cases.[2]

Cranial manifestations of melioidosis also include scalp abscesses, osteomyelitis, meningitis, subdural empyema, encephalitis, brain abscesses, and meningeal irritation.[3] [Table 1] shows the recently reported cases of melioidosis presenting as mass lesions and osteomyelitis.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8]{Table 1}

Dural sinus thrombosis complicating septic melioidosis was first reported from Thailand where dural venous sinus thrombosis was attributed to the hypercoagulable state secondary to septicemia.[9]

The uniqueness of our case lies in the absence of a mass lesion, osteomyelitis, or septic melioidosis. It is the first reported case, to the best of our knowledge, where melioidosis is presented with only pachymeningitis and dural venous sinus thrombosis.

Treatment of neurological melioidosis includes an initial intensive therapy by parenteral ceftazidime (50 mg/kg up to 2 g intravenously every 6 hours or meropenem (25 mg/kg up to 1 g intravenously every 8 hours) for a period of 6–8 weeks, followed by the eradication therapy by oral cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole) at a dose of 40/8 mg/kg (up to 1,600/320 mg) every 12 hours, and doxycycline 2 mg/kg, (up to 100 mg) every 12 hours for 6 months.[3],[8],[9],[10]

Melioidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic pachymeningitis, even in the absence of brain abscess and predisposing factors, especially when the patient is not responding to steroids and empirical antituberculous drugs. This ensures an early diagnosis and treatment and prevents mortality and morbidity.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

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