NI FEATURE: THE FIRST IMPRESSION
|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 1--2
The Cover Page
|How to cite this article:|
. The Cover Page.Neurol India 2020;68:1-2
|How to cite this URL:|
. The Cover Page. Neurol India [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Apr 7 ];68:1-2
Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2020/68/1/1/279708
Sterilization pic - Mr Kushagra Nigam, Scientific officer-C.
Plasma jet pic - Mr Anand Visani, Scientific Officer-D.
The Institute for Plasma Research is an autonomous R and D organisation under the authority of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Government of India is situated near west banks of river Sabarmati in Gujarat, India.
This institute is largely involved in theoretical and experimental studies in plasma science including basic plasma physics, magnetically confined hot plasmas and plasma technologies for industrial application.
The institute owns two operational tokamaks (a machine for controlling thermonuclear fusion) - ADITYA and Steady-State Tokamak (SST) - 1. FCIPT, ITER-India and CPP-IPR, located in Gandhinagar and Guwahati are three divisions under IPR.
The Institute for Plasma Research can trace its roots the back to early 1970s when a coherent and interactive programme of theoretical and experimental studies in plasma physics with an orientation towards understanding space plasma phenomena was established at the Physical Research laboratory.
The early studies were on simulation of E x B instabilities characteristic of the equatorial electrojet, plasma-neutral gas interaction with relevance to the cometary plasma-solar wind interaction and single particle confinement in non-adiabatic magnetic mirrors. Experiments on non-linear ion-acoustic waves and double layers were added later. High power plasma experiments using intense electron beams to form compact toroids and electron rings in toroidal devices started in 1978 reflected a re-orientation to fusion-relevant experiments.[INLINE:1]
A proposal to the Government of India to initiate studies on magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas was accepted in 1982 and resulted in the establishment of the Plasma Physics Programme (PPP) supported by the Department of Science and Technology. Design and engineering of India's first tokamak ADITYA started at the same time. In 1984 the activities moved into an independent campus at Bhat village in the outskirts of Ahmedabad city in 1984.
The PPP evolved into the autonomous Institute for Plasma Research under the Department of Science and Technology in 1986. With the commissioning of ADITYA in 1989, full-fledged tokamak experiments started. A dynamic experimental programme focusing on transport due to edge turbulence has resulted in major discoveries in this field. This period also saw the development of new programmes in plasma processing and basic and computational plasma research.
With the decision to build the second generation superconducting steady-state tokamak SST-1 capable of 1000 second operation in 1995, the institute grew rapidly and came under the administrative umbrella of the Department of Atomic Energy. Major new programmes in pulsed power, advanced diagnostics, computer modelling, development of RF and neutral beam heating systems etc., also came into being. The industrial plasma activities were reorganised under the Facilitation Centre for Industrial Plasma Technologies and moved to a separate campus in Gandhinagar in 1998.
IPR is now internationally recognised for its contributions to fundamental and applied research in plasma physics and associated technologies. It has a scientific and engineering manpower of 200 with core competency in theoretical plasma physics, computer modelling, superconducting magnets and cryogenics, ultra-high vacuum, pulsed power, microwave and RF, computer-based control and data acquisition and industrial, environmental and strategic plasma applications. IPR currently is doing collaborative research with the Center of Excellence Epilepsy in areas of Artificial Intelligence to develop AI algorithms for EEG and MR Imaging.[INLINE:2]
Plasma sterilizer is an emerging low temperature and eco-friendly technique compared to the conventional methods of sterilization. This process can sterilize a wide range of instruments efficiently, effectively and safely for users, patients, and the environment. It can effectively kill stable spores, viruses, and prions. The sterilization time is also expected to reduce substantially. UV radiations and reactive oxygen species present in the plasma play a dominant role in breaking DNA molecules and cell membrane of microorganisms. The above picture shows an ozone plasma formed in a plasma sterilizer system developed by the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR). The plasma, as can be seen, takes a beautiful surreal hue inside the plasma sterilizer.
Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) shown above is a non-thermal plasma device used in various bio-medical and agricultural applications. Plasma is produced in these devices based on the principle of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) in which dielectric material such as quartz cover one or both electrodes and by introducing high voltage between live and ground electrodes, discharge is ignited. The plasma so formed is touchable by bare hands. Helium and argon are mainly used as plasma producing gases in APPJ.
Neurology India is very happy that they have contributed two beautiful photographs for the cover page and also have provided a review article on the uses of the plasma in medicine.