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NI FEATURE: THE QUEST - COMMENTARY
How to recognize and treat metabolic encephalopathy in Neurology intensive care unit
Ivana I Berisavac, Dejana R Jovanović, Višnja V Padjen, Marko D Ercegovac, Predrag D J Stanarčević, Maja S Budimkić-Stefanović, Milan M Radović, Ljiljana G Beslać-Bumbaširević
January-February 2017, 65(1):123-128
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.198192  PMID:28084256
Metabolic encephalopathy (ME) represents a syndrome of temporary or permanent disturbance of brain functions that occurs in different diseases and varies in clinical presentation. It can be manifested in a range from very mild mental disorders to deep coma and death. Clinically, it is characterized by a variety of psychiatric and neurological symptoms and signs. The most common causes of ME are: hypoxia, ischemia, systemic diseases and toxic agents. ME is the most frequent in elderly people who have previously been exhausted by chronic illnesses and prolonged stay in bed. ME is a very common complication in patients treated in intensive care units. Treatment and prognosis of the disease are varied and depend on aetiology, as well as on the type and severity of clinical presentation. Mortality of patients with septic encephalopathy ranges from 16-65%, while the one-year survival of patients with encephalopathy and liver cirrhosis is less than 50%.
  97,476 226 -
The Babinski sign--a reappraisal.
SP Kumar, D Ramasubramanian
October-December 2000, 48(4):314-8
PMID:11146592
In 1896, Joseph Babinski, a French neurologist, first described the best known neurologic eponym 'the Babinski sign'. This sign is characterised by dorsiflexion of the big toe and recruitment of the extensor hallucis longus muscle, on stimulating the sole of the foot. He has emphasised from the outset, the intimate relationship between this sign and the shortening movement in other leg muscles, which form the flexion synergy of the lower limb. The Babinski sign is not a new reflex, rather it is released as a result of breakdown of the harmonious integration of the flexion and extension components of the normal defence reflex mechanism, due to pyramidal tract dysfunction. A pathological Babinski sign should be clearly distinguished from upgoing toes that may not always be a part of the flexion synergy. This article reviews the Babinski sign in detail, focusing on the historical perspectives, role of pyramidal tract dysfunction and art of elicitation and interpretation. The significance of assessing this phenomenon in the entire leg, and the clinical clues that will help to dispel the myths regarding the Babinski sign, have been emphasised.
  81,691 1,702 7
Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.
S Singh, N Sharma
October-December 2000, 48(4):308-13
PMID:11146591
Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as 'chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders' (COPIND). Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.
  62,104 1,955 46
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
JM Murthy
July-September 2002, 50(3):238-43
PMID:12391446
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The true incidence of the disease in India is undetermined and is likely to be more frequent than reported, as the common antecedent events, exanthematous fevers and Semple antirabies vaccination, which predispose to ADEM, are still prevalent. The existing evidence suggests that ADEM results from a transient autoimmune response towards myelin or other self-antigens, possibly via molecular mimicry, or by non-specific activation of auto-reactive T cell clones. ADEM is a monophasic illness with favourable long-term outcome. Involvement of neuroaxis is variable and can be diffuse or multifocal and site restricted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive in detecting white matter lesions and the lesions described are rather extensive and subcortical in location. Involvement of the deep gray matter, particularly basal ganglia, is more frequent. Oligoclonal bands in CSF are usually absent. No therapy has been established by controlled trials in ADEM. Use of high-dose methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, and IVIG are based on the analogy of the pathogenesis of ADEM with that of multiple sclerosis (MS). Differentiation of ADEM from the first attack of MS is important from prognostic as well as therapeutic point of view. However, in the absence of biological marker, at times differentiation of ADEM from the initial presentation of MS may not be possible even by combination of clinical, CSF analysis, and MRI. This differentiation is more relevant to India where the incidence of MS is low.
  59,988 1,397 43
REVIEW ARTICLE
Botulinum toxins: Pharmacology and its current therapeutic evidence for use
UB Muthane, JN Panikar
October-December 2003, 51(4):455-460
PMID:14742921
Botulinum toxins are, as a group, among the most potent neuromuscular toxins known, yet they are clinically useful in the management of conditions associated with muscular and glandular over-activity. Botulinum toxins act by preventing release of acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction. While botulinum toxin type A is commonly available, different manufacturers produce specific products, which are not directly interchangeable and should not be considered as generically equivalent formulations. Type B is also available in the market. Each formulation of botulinum toxin is unique with distinct dosing, efficacy and safety profiles for each use to which it is applied. Botulinum toxin type A is the treatment of choice based on its depth of evidence in dystonias and most other conditions. Botulinum toxin type A is established as useful in the management of spasticity, tremors, headache prophylaxis and several other neurological conditions. Active research is underway to determine the parameters for which the type B toxin can be used in these conditions, as covered in this review. Botulinum toxin use has spread to several fields of medicine.
  60,098 1,155 17
CASE REPORT
Childhood Ataxia with Cerebral Hypomyelination (CACH) syndrome: A study of three siblings
Sachin R Vaidya, Shrinivas B Desai, Satish V Khadilkar, Neeta A Mehta
July-September 2004, 52(3):372-374
PMID:15472431
We report a family of three siblings with Childhood Ataxia with Cerebral Hypomyelination. All the siblings presented with early onset cerebellar ataxia beginning around five years of age with mild mental retardation. MRI showed diffuse white matter signal changes in all three patients with cerebellar atrophy while the spectroscopy was abnormal only in the eldest who was the most severely affected. The cases are reported for their rarity as well as for an opportunity of observing this uncommon disease in its stages of evolution in three siblings.
  56,073 399 3
Sacral nerve root cysts : A review on pathophysiology.
MJ ArunKumar, S Selvapandian, MJ Chandy
January-March 1999, 47(1):61-4
PMID:10339712
Nerve root cysts of the sacral region are generally asymptomatic but are known to cause neurogenic claudication. In this paper we present an elderly lady who presented with claudication, whose MR imaging showed a sacral cyst. She underwent lumbo-sacral laminectomy, partial excision of the cyst wall with plication. A review of the possible pathophysiology of such a lesion is discussed.
  54,388 0 10
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Sacral perineural cyst presenting as chronic perineal pain : a case report.
SK Jain, S Chopra, H Bagaria, PP Mathur
October-December 2002, 50(4):514-5
PMID:12577111
We present an interesting case of sacral perineural cyst which caused chronic perineal pain. Perineural cyst is relatively rare, especially the sacral region. Chronic perineural pain is an often encountered problem that is difficult to evaluate and sacral perineural cyst may be the etiology of chronic perineal pain in many instances.
  51,807 480 10
Vertebral artery dissection due to indirect neck trauma : an underrecognised entity.
S Prabhakar, R Bhatia, N Khandelwal, V Lal, CP Das
October-December 2001, 49(4):384-90
PMID:11799413
Vertebral artery dissection is an important cause of brain stem stroke, especially in the young. Dissections of carotid and vertebral arteries in neck account for about 20% of strokes in young compared with 2.5% in the elderly. Three patients of vertebral artery dissection related to indirect neck trauma are described. The first patient developed the symptoms while dancing, the second after a trivial fall and the third while he was on a dental chair. None of them had a direct severe neck trauma or concomitant risk factor like hypertension, connective tissue disease or migraine. Clinical symptomatology was similar in all the patients and included occipito-nuchal pain, headache and brain stem dysfunction chiefly in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) territory. One of the patients also had associated ischaemic myelopathy. MRA and DSA confirmed dissection in all with a predominant steno-occlusive picture. Cases of so called trivial neck movement/torsion related dissection have been described previously but have not received any major importance. Usually classified as 'spontaneous' or 'traumatic', there is a possible ambiguity in literature about appropriate terminology. We emphasise that a history of such subtle precipitating events be taken while diagnosing young patients with brain stem strokes, to recognise this clinical entity. Although mechanisms are not absolutely clear, yet there seems to be an important relationship between arterial dissection and neck movements or minor trauma.
  48,919 503 17
Management of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas : review of 13 patients.
L Murugan, RS Samson, MJ Chandy
July-September 2002, 50(3):300-5
PMID:12391457
Thirteen consecutive cases with symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas, managed during a five year period from January 1995 at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, were analysed. Twelve patients had lesions in the thoracic and 1 in the sacral region. Eight patients had multiple level involvement. Seven patients had laminectomy and soft tissue component excision, of which one had intraoperative injection of absolute alcohol and one had postoperative radiotherapy. One patient had vertebrectomy and stabilization with preoperative embolization. One patient underwent only endovascular embolization. However, the focus of this communication is on 4 patients who underwent a CT guided percutaneous transpedicular injection of absolute alcohol into the affected vertebral body. In the surgical group, 6 patients had cavernous type and 2 patients had mixed type of hemangiomas. Ten patients improved on the Ranawat grade by the time of discharge. On the MRC grade, 11 patients had improved, one was grade 5 pre and postoperative, while one did not improve. Several options are available for the management of symptomatic vertebral hemangiomas and multiple modalities may have to be used for a single patient. CT guided percutaneous transpedicular injection of absolute alcohol shows promising results. However, long term follow up is mandatory.
  48,166 634 33
NI FEATURE: CITADELS SCULPTING FUTURE - COMMENTARY
The Department of Neurosurgery, G. B. Pant Hospital, New Delhi
Anita Jagetia, Daljit Singh, Arvind K Srivastava, AK Singh
November-December 2017, 65(6):1366-1377
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.217980  PMID:29133716
The history of the prestigious Department of Neurosurgery, Gobind Ballabh Pant Institute of Medical Education Institute and Research, New Delhi, a leading tertiary care centre, is presented. Its eminent faculty and outstanding patient care attracts patients and students from all over the country.The patients opt for this institution to get a standard of care that may be comparable with the highest standards prevalent; and, the students achieve their goal of getting excellent education in Neurosurgery at par with the best institutes of the world. The department has, therefore, over the years, established its place in the country as a premier training facility and an epitome of medical excellence.
  46,585 186 -
Bangur Institute of Neurosciences: A premier neurosciences institute of Eastern India
Samarendranath Ghosh, Shubhamitra Chaudhuri
May-June 2016, 64(3):513-523
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.181550  PMID:27147161
Bangur Institute of Neurosciences is one of India's oldest teaching institutions in the field of neurosciences. It has contributed richly over four decades in training and research in Neurology and Neurosurgery. Situated in Kolkata, the City of Joy and the Cultural Capital of India, and run under the aegis of the Government of West Bengal's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, it remains one of the highest-volume neurological and neurosurgical centers in the country. This is a humble attempt to illustrate the history of this Institute and to provide a vignette of the many illustrious neurologists and neurosurgeons who were intimately involved in the setting up practice of Clinical Neurosciences in Eastern India.
  43,905 158 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Parkinsonism plus syndrome – A review
K Mitra, PK Gangopadhaya, SK Das
April-June 2003, 51(2):183-188
PMID:14570999
Parkinsonism plus syndrome is a group of heterogeneous degenerative neurological disorders, which differ from the classical idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in certain associated clinical features, poor response to levodopa, distinctive pathological characteristics and poor prognosis. Associated clinical features include symmetrical onset, infrequent or atypical tremor, prominent rigidity in axial musculature, bradykinesia, early postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, early autonomic failure, pyramidal affection, cerebellar involvement, alien limb phenomenon, apraxia and significant early cognitive dysfunction in some cases. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and dementia with Lewy body disease (DLB) are commoner disorders. Less frequent disorders are cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD), frontotemporal dementia with chromosome 17 (FTDP-17), Pick’s disease, parkinsonian-dementia complex of Guam, Pallidonigral degeneration, Wilson’s disease and a rigid variant of Huntington’s disease. During the last 3 decades, major progress has been made in understanding PSP, CBGD and FTDP-17, which are tau disorders. MSA and DLB together with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease are called a-synucleinopathies. Recent studies show that the diagnosis of these Parkinsonism plus syndromes improves when strict diagnostic criteria are used. However, unusual presentations may pose a diagnostic challenge. The shortcomings of the current studies demand the need for further research to identify biologic markers that may allow earlier diagnosis, and understanding of the factors leading to a-synuclein or tau aggregation. Identification of therapeutic strategies that may prevent the aggregation of these proteins and rescue dysfunctional cells has been stressed. This review focuses on the advances in the clinical, neuroimaging, pathologic, genetic and management aspects of these disorders.
  41,787 2,030 13
CASE REPORT
Kluver- Bucy syndrome - An experience with six cases
Sanjeev Jha, R Patel
July-September 2004, 52(3):369-371
PMID:15472430
The Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a neurobehavioral syndrome and can be seen in association with a variety of neurological disorders. Case records of 6 patients with KBS seen during a period of 5 years in a university hospital were reviewed. During the study period 6 patients with KBS, aged between 4 and 14 years, were seen. Hyperorality, hypersexuality, and abnormal behavior were the most common manifestations. Of the 6 patients, 5 had recurrent unprovoked seizures. The associated neurological disorders included anoxia-ischemic encephalopthy (2), herpes simplex encephalitis (1), neurocysticercosis (NCC) (1), traumatic brain injury with gliosis (1 case) and tuberculous meningitis (1 case). Prognosis was poor in all the patients except in the patient with NCC.
  42,146 677 25
REVIEW ARTICLE
The management of non-functioning pituitary adenomas
J A Jr. Jane, E R Jr. Laws
October-December 2003, 51(4):461-465
PMID:14742922
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas most commonly present secondary to mass effect and are classified according to their size and immunohistochemical staining. Local intrasellar mass effect may cause varying degrees of hypopituitarism. With extrasellar growth, neurological signs and symptoms develop. Appropriate therapy for these tumors requires close interaction across multiple disciplines. Trans-sphenoidal surgery offers safe and effective treatment in the overwhelming majority of patients with relatively low risk of new neurological and endocrinologic deficits. The multidisciplinary management of non-functioning adenomas, their diagnosis and therapeutic outcomes, is discussed.
  39,389 581 9
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Myasthenic crisis: Clinical features, complications and mortality
J MK Murthy, AK Meena, G VS Chowdary, Jaishree T Naryanan
January-March 2005, 53(1):37-40
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.15050  PMID:15805653
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Myasthenic crisis is a life-threatening complication of myasthenia gravis (MG) and when treated aggressively is associated with good outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of case records of patients with episodes of myasthenic crisis. RESULTS: Twenty-one (22%) of the 95 patients with MG (9 with thymoma), experienced 23 episodes of myasthenic crisis, 3 (33%) in patients with thymoma. The crisis episodes occurred within 2 years of disease onset in 11 (52%) patients. Infection was the most common primary precipitant of the crisis occurring in 65%. The median duration of the crisis episode was 11 days (7-39 days), and the median neurological intensive care unit stay was 15 days (range 9-47 days). Fifteen (65%) episodes were treated with small volume plasma exchange (PE) and 8 (35%) episodes received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The time taken for disease stabilization, the median number of days for extubation, was 8 days (range 7-12) in the PE group and 10 days (range 7-39) in the IVIg group. Disease stabilization could not be achieved in one patient in the IVIg group. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was the commonest complication, seen in 30%. Two (8%) of the 23 episodes of crisis were fatal, one resulting from VAP and septicemia, and the other due to crisis itself. All the 19 patients who survived to discharge had complete resolution of admission symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with myasthenic crisis, both therapeutic options, PE and IVIg, are equally effective in disease stabilization. To achieve good outcomes all efforts should be directed at decreasing the duration of intubation and also aggressively treating the associated medical complications.
  38,014 1,112 33
SHORT REPORTS
Recurrent seizures: An unusual manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency
S Kumar
January-March 2004, 52(1):122-123
PMID:15069260
The present report highlights an unusual presentation of vitamin B12 deficiency— recurrent seizures in a 26-year-old man. His symptoms responded to parenteral vitamin B12 therapy. The relevant literature is reviewed.
  38,196 259 16
REVIEW ARTICLE
Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis: Some modifications are needed for Indian patients
Ravindra Kumar Garg
April-June 2004, 52(2):171-177
PMID:15269463
In India and other less developed countries the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is frequently difficult because several other prevalent neurological disorders can present with a similar clinical and neuroimaging picture. Currently available international criteria seem to be helpful for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis, however, these criteria have been criticized for not being effective in differentiating several other infective and neoplastic diseases of central nervous system (CNS), like CNS tuberculosis, from neurocysticercosis. In this article, modifications in the recent diagnostic criteria given by Del Brutto et al (2001) are being suggested, so, it can become more suitable for Indian patients. In India the overwhelming majority of patients with neurocysticercosis have either single enhancing or less frequently multiple enhancing CT lesions. Imaging and clinical features of various infective conditions, like tuberculoma, fungal granuloma, and parasitic granuloma, and of neoplastic conditions like cerebral metastasis, are remarkably similar. Keeping this in mind, the modification suggested in this article is to replace epidemiological criteria with the section diagnosis of neurocysticercosis with caution in certain situations. These situations are middle or old age, evidence of pre-existing tuberculosis or malignancy, pre-existing HIV infection and in patients with grossly abnormal neurological examination. In these situations, in the absence of one of the absolute criteria, it should be essential to consider and exclude all other likely possibilities before making a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. However, because of the high prevalence of several disorders with similar features it is difficult to make reliable diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, which are easy to use, and have a high specificity and sensitivity.
  35,295 1,568 28
Thoracic pedicle screw placement: Free-hand technique
Yongjung J Kim, Lawrence G Lenke
October-December 2005, 53(4):512-519
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.22622  PMID:16565545
  34,640 1,445 49
REVIEW ARTICLES
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Eppie M Yiu, Andrew J Kornberg
July-September 2008, 56(3):236-247
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.43441  PMID:18974549
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an X-linked disorder, is the most common muscular dystrophy in children, presenting in early childhood and characterized by proximal muscle weakness and calf hypertrophy in affected boys. Patients usually become wheelchair-bound by the age of 12 years, and die of cardiorespiratory complications in their late teens to early twenties. Advances in the management of DMD, including treatment with corticosteroids and the use of intermittent positive pressure ventilation have provided improvements in function, ambulation, quality of life and life expectancy, although novel therapies still aim to provide a cure for this devastating disorder. The clinical features, investigations, and management of DMD are reviewed, as well as the latest in some of the novel therapies.
  34,159 1,584 35
INDIAN PERSPECTIVE
Management of hydrocephalus in patients with tuberculous meningitis
Vedantam Rajshekhar
July-August 2009, 57(4):368-374
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.55572  PMID:19770534
Hydrocephalus is one of the commonest complications of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) occurring in up to 85% of children with the disease. It is more severe in children than in adults. It could be either of the communicating type or the obstructive type with the former being more frequently seen. The Vellore grading system for clinical grading of patients with TBM and hydrocephalus with grade I being the best grade and grade IV being the worst grade has been validated by several authors. The management of hydrocephalus can include medical therapy with dehydrating agents and steroids for patients in good grades and those with communicating hydrocephalus. However, surgery is required for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus and those in poor grades. Surgery can involve either a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Complications of shunt surgery in patients with TBM and hydrocephalus are high with frequent shunt obstructions and shunt infections requiring repeated revisions. ETV has variable success in these patients and is generally not advisable in patients in the acute stages of the disease. Mortality on long-term follow up has been reported to vary from 10.5% to 57.1% in those with altered sensorium prior to surgery and 0 to 12.5% in patients with normal sensorium. Surgery for patients in Vellore grade IV is usually associated with a poor outcome and high mortality and therefore, its utility in these patients is debatable
  32,827 1,776 59
REVIEW ARTICLE
Molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for fragile X mental retardation
UB Pandey, SR Phadke, B Mittal
January-March 2004, 52(1):36-42
PMID:15069237
The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent cause of inherited mental retardation. It is caused by a dynamic mutation: the progressive expansion of polymorphic (CGG)n trinucleotide repeats located in the promoter region of the FMRI gene at Xq27.3. The cloning of the FMRI gene and the elucidation of the molecular basis of the fragile X syndrome is of great importance for the diagnosis and understanding of this unusual type of mutation. Although extensively studied, the mechanism behind the transition from stable normal (CGG)n alleles to the carrier state (an unstable premutation) and from premutation to mutation is partially understood. The clinical diagnosis of fragile X mental retardation (FXMR) is not possible as dysmorphic features are subtle. Molecular diagnosis by Southern Blot is the confirmatory test that makes carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis possible. As the risk of recurrence of FXMR is high in the family and carrier relatives, an identification of fragile X positive children, and offering carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis to the families is very important. It is possible by screening mentally retarded children and adults even if there is no family history of mental retardation or typical behavioral or physical features associated with the fragile X phenotype. In this review we have discussed the method for the diagnosis and counseling of the families. The complexities due to premutation and the variable severity of manifestations in carrier females need to be understood while counseling fragile X families.
  33,526 878 6
TOPICS OF THE ISSUE-DENGUE NEUROLOGY-REVIEW ARTICLES
Encephalitis in the clinical spectrum of dengue infection
Aravinthan Varatharaj
July-August 2010, 58(4):585-591
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.68655  PMID:20739797
Dengue viral infections are common worldwide. Clinical manifestations form a broad spectrum, and include uncomplicated dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. Encephalopathy has been well reported and has classically been thought to result from the multisystem derangement that occurs in severe dengue infection; with liver failure, shock, and coagulopathy causing cerebral insult. However, there is increasing evidence for dengue viral neurotropism, suggesting that, in a proportion of cases, there may be an element of direct viral encephalitis. Understanding the pathophysiology of dengue encephalopathy is crucial toward developing a more effective management strategy. This review provides an overview of the clinical spectrum of dengue infection, and examines evidence supporting the existence of dengue encephalitis.
  33,023 1,065 63
REVIEW ARTICLE
Vitamin B12 and folate depletion in cognition: A review
Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Tatiana Cattaruzza, Giuseppe Cazzato, Antonio Bava
July-September 2004, 52(3):310-318
PMID:15472418
In cross-sectional studies, low levels of folate and B12 have been shown to be associated with cognitive decline and dementia Evidence for the putative role of folate, vitamin B12 in neurocognitive and other neurological functions comes from reported cases of severe vitamin deficiencies, particularly pernicious anemia, and homozygous defects in genes that encode for enzymes of one-carbon metabolism. The neurological alterations seen in these cases allow for a biological role of vitamins in neurophysiology. Results are quite controversial and there is an open debate in literature, considering that the potential and differential role of folate and B12 vitamin in memory acquisition and cognitive development is not completely understood or accepted. What is not clear is the fact that vitamin B12 and folate deficiency deteriorate a pre-existing not overt pathological situation or can be dangerous even in normal subjects. Even more intriguing is the interaction between B12 and folate, and their role in developing hyperhomocysteinemia. The approach to the rehabilitation of the deficiency with adequate vitamin supplementation is very confusing. Some authors suggest it, even in chronic situations, others deny any possible role. Starting from these quite confusing perspectives, the aim of this review is to report and categorize the data obtained from the literature. Despite the plausible biochemical mechanism, further studies, based on clinical, neuropsychological, laboratory and (lastly) pathological features will be necessary to better understand this fascinating biochemical riddle.
  32,813 1,188 30
NI FEATURE: CITADELS SCULPTING FUTURE - COMMENTARY
History of neurosurgery at Christian Medical College, Vellore: A pioneer's tale
Vedantam Rajshekhar
March-April 2016, 64(2):297-310
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.177625  PMID:26954810
The Department of Neurological Sciences at Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore was the first department to start neurosurgical and neurological services in India. Jacob Chandy started the department in 1949 against several odds. He started a formal training program in neurosurgery in 1958, for the first time in India, and went on to qualify several neurosurgeons, who in turn pioneered neurosurgical departments all over India. After 1970, K V Mathai and Jacob Abraham guided the department through some difficult times when there was a severe shortage of personnel and no faculty in the neurology section. Through their commitment and hard work, they continued not only the neurosurgery service but also looked after patients with neurological disorders. Mathew J Chandy, son of Jacob Chandy, joined them in 1980 and introduced micro-neurosurgery and several other neurosurgical techniques. Training of residents in micro-neurosurgery began in the early 1980s. The last quarter of a century has been a period of rapid progress for neurosurgery at CMC. There has been an exponential rise in the number of surgeries, number of residents and number of publications. Research has always been an integral part of the activities of the department and several high impact articles have been published by the faculty and residents. The neurosurgical faculty at CMC has also contributed significantly to organized neurosurgery in India and internationally, with five of them serving as President of the Neurological Society of India, a society which had Jacob Chandy as its founder President. With this heritage, the neurosurgery section at CMC, Vellore is likely to continue to provide high quality ethical neurosurgical care to patients from all over India and overseas.
  33,152 242 -
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow