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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2000| January-March  | Volume 48 | Issue 1  
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Retrocerebellar arachnoid cyst with syringomyelia : a case report.
R Jain, V Sawlani, R Phadke, R Kumar
January-March 2000, 48(1):81-3
Association of syringomyelia with retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts is rare. A case of 14 year old female is being reported, who presented with hydrocephalus caused by a large midline retrocerebellar infravermal arachnoid cyst leading to obstruction of the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle. There was associated syringomyelia. The pathogenesis of syringomyelia is discussed. The need to evaluate cervical spinal cord by taking T1 weighted sagittal sections in all the patients of large posterior fossa mass lesions causing obstruction to the outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle has been stressed, in order to detect associated syringomyelia.
  15 15,606 237
Intramedullary spinal epidermoid cyst.
PS Chandra, T Manjari, BI Devi, BA Chandramouli, SG Srikanth, SK Shankar
January-March 2000, 48(1):75-7
Intramedullary epidermoid cysts of the spinal cord are rare tumours, especially those not associated with spinal dysraphism. Around 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Of these, only seven cases have had magnetic resonance imaging studies. We report two cases of spinal intramedullary epidermoid cysts with MR imaging. Both were not associated with spina bifida. In one patient the tumour was located at D4 vertebral level, while in other within the conus medullaris. The clinical features, MR imaging characteristics and surgical treatment of such rare intramedullary benign tumours are discussed, and the relevant literature reviewed.
  14 8,508 290
A mathematical outcome prediction model in severe head injury : a pilot study.
KK Mukherjee, BS Sharma, SM Ramanathan, N Khandelwal, VK Kak
January-March 2000, 48(1):43-8
103 patients of head injury, with a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 8 or less, were studied prospectively. GCS score, brain stem reflexes, motor score, reaction level scale, and Glasgow Liege scale were evaluated as prognostic variables. Linear logistic regression analysis was used to obtain coefficients of these variables and mathematical formulae developed to predict outcome in individual patients.
  11 9,492 207
Fracture occipital condyle with isolated 12th nerve paresis.
BI Devi, S Dubey, S Shetty, VK Jaiswal, PN Jayakumar
January-March 2000, 48(1):93-4
  9 7,211 124
Ectopic meningioma : a case report.
A Marthandapillai, JP Alappat
January-March 2000, 48(1):94-5
  7 3,920 135
Usefulness of short term video-EEG monitoring in children with frequent intractable episodes.
G Srikumar, M Bhatia, S Jain, MC Maheshwari
January-March 2000, 48(1):29-32
A prospective study was done to evaluate the role of short-term Video EEG (VEEG) recording in assessing the nature of clinical behaviour and in classification of seizures in children with frequent intractable seizure episodes. Forty five children upto 12 years of age with frequent intractable seizure episodes (> or =3/week) were included in the study. VEEG was done on an outpatient basis until an event was recorded or for a minimum period of 6 hours. The events were detected in 78% of cases. The seizures were classified in all children with recorded events and seizure classification was changed in 22%. Anti-epileptic drugs could be stopped or reduced in 11%. Short term VEEG monitoring was useful in characterising events and in classification of seizures in children with frequent, intractable seizure episodes. Use of this investigation as a screening procedure for diagnosis in children with frequent episodes is stressed, thereby reducing the cost associated with prolonged VEEG recordings and disability associated with misdiagnosis of epilepsy.
  6 7,845 185
Characterization of gait parameters in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
A Kuruvilla, JL Costa, RB Wright, DM Yoder, TP Andriacchi
January-March 2000, 48(1):49-55
The gait of five patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth(CMT) disease was analyzed using light-emitting diodes and a force plate. The flexion-extension motions of the hips, knees, and ankles, as well as their moments (vector sums of forces acting at the joints) in the flexion-extension and abduction-adduction planes, were quantified. The gait of the CMT patients showed abnormalities consistent with both distal weakness (ankle dorsi- and plantar-flexors) and weakness of the hip abductor muscles. The latter weakness appeared to produce asymmetric hip moments and truncal instability in the mediolateral plane during ambulation. However, the extent to which the gait was abnormal appeared not to be exclusively related to the severity of the sensorimotor conduction deficits in the peripheral nerves. In the four patients for whom nerve conduction velocity studies were available, decrease in the lower-extremity distal conduction velocities and evoked motor amplitude potentials did not correlate with the severity and extent of the gait abnormalities.
  5 9,039 256
Acute alcoholic myopathy, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure : a case report.
S Singh, A Sharma, S Sharma, A Sud, A Wanchu, P Bambery
January-March 2000, 48(1):84-5
A case of middle aged male who developed swelling and weakness of muscles in the lower limbs following a heavy binge of alcohol is being reported. He had myoglobinuria and developed acute renal failure for which he was dialyzed. Acute alcoholic myopathy is not a well recognized condition and should be considered in any intoxicated patient who presents with muscle tenderness and weakness.
  5 13,921 167
Pituitary adenoma and parasagittal meningioma : an unusual association.
SN Mathuriya, RK Vasishta, RJ Dash, VK Kak
January-March 2000, 48(1):72-4
Simultaneous detection of an intracranial meningioma with a pituitary tumour prior to radiotherapy is an extremely uncommon occurrence. Authors have managed an elderly acromegalic lady with an acidophilic pituitary adenoma, who also harboured an asymptomatic anterior third parasagittal meningioma. There were no features of neurofibromatosis. Both tumours were concurrently excised.
  5 6,101 144
Detection of deletion in the dystrophin gene of a patient with quadriceps myopathy.
D Kumari, M Gupta, S Goyle
January-March 2000, 48(1):68-71
A 43 year old male presented with slowly progressive weakness of limbs and hypertrophy of triceps, brachioradialis and calf muscles for four years. There was thinning of quadriceps muscles in both thighs. Histological study was compatible with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). Genomic DNA analysis showed a deletion of the Hind III fragments, spanning exons 45-47. A junction fragment of 11.0 kb was observed along with a deletion of a 3.4 kb PstI fragment containing exon 51 in the patient, and in one of his two sisters. The clinical and laboratory characteristics in this patient are in keeping with what has been described 'quadriceps myopathy' and fall within the phenotypic variants of BMD as has been shown by others.
  4 4,881 132
Centronuclear myopathy--morphological relation to developing human skeletal muscle : a clinicopathological evaluation.
N Gayathri, S Das, A Vasanth, MG Devi, Y Ramamohan, V Santosh, TC Yasha, SK Shankar
January-March 2000, 48(1):19-28
Centronuclear myopathy (CNM), an uncommon condition, is one of the congenital myopathies. It is believed to arise as a result of maturational arrest, with persistence of myotubes postnatally. However, denervation being the basic disease process and its possible influence on central nervous system causing defect in nuclear migration has also been postulated. Keeping in view these existing controversies, we have studied 17 cases of CNM (neonatal - 1, childhood - 13, adulthood - 3) during the last twelve and a half years. Diagnosis was based on histological and enzyme histochemical findings of muscle biopsy along with clinical data. Ultrastructural characterstics of muscle have been studied in 10 cases. The affected muscle fibres showed a central nucleus (40-99%) with perinuclear halo. Type I fibre predominance with hypoplasia was consistently seen. Fibre type disproportion was noticed in 7 cases. The neonatal form revealed dense oxidative enzyme reaction product in the centre. The morphological features of CNM were compared with foetal skeletal muscles obtained at gestational ages ranging from 9 weeks - 36 weeks (n = 18). In the severe neonatal form th myofibres resembled the foetal myotubes. In the less severe childhood and adult form of CNM, aberrant organization of cytoskeletal network might have played a pathogenetic role in causing the disease.
  3 11,159 152
Pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis following rapid correction of hyponatremia.
T Srivastava, P Singh, B Sharma
January-March 2000, 48(1):97-97
  3 6,144 251
Shunt migration into a Dandy Walker cyst.
PK Gupta, KS Mann
January-March 2000, 48(1):89-90
  3 7,075 135
Tuberculous osteomyelitis of the bone flap following craniotomy for a glioma.
SN Biniwale, V Rajshekhar
January-March 2000, 48(1):91-2
  2 5,586 109
Systemic lupus erythematosus causing cerebral infarction and basal ganglion calcification : a case report.
A Mathur, HR Choudhary
January-March 2000, 48(1):91-91
  2 9,191 169
A massive extradural haematoma at the vertex.
A Chagla, D Muzumdar, A Goel
January-March 2000, 48(1):88-88
  2 3,980 112
Stereotactic surgery in India : the past, present and the future.
B Ramamurthi
January-March 2000, 48(1):1-7
The achievements of Indian neurosurgeons in different fields of stereotactic surgery over the past decades have been discussed. This covers diverse areas like Parkinson's disease, abnormal movements, cerebral palsy, spasticity, pain relief, and sedative and functional neurosurgery. Recently, technological advances have made stereotactic surgery useful in many fields like deep biopsies, minimally invasive surgery and radiosurgery. Apart from these areas, there is still a big scope for revival of surgery on deep structures of the brain, as was practised earlier. This will lead to newer knowledge about brain function and also give relief to many patients. The future is bright, provided Indian neurosurgeons show a paradigm shift in their thinking and bring out new ideas. Interaction with other scientific disciplines is necessary in the future if new knowledge has to be added or new techniques have to be devised.
  2 24,714 296
Anterior surgical approaches to the sub-axial cervical spine.
VK Khosla, SK Gupta, BS Sharma, SN Mathuriya
January-March 2000, 48(1):8-18
Anterior cervical spine surgery has come of age, as a golden route for treating anteriorly placed cervical compressions ranging from simple prolapsed disc to long segment pathologies like ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Numerous technical modifications of the procedure are described. The role of stabilisation established for several pathologies, is still debateable in surgery for cervical disc. Bone is the ideal tissue for fusion. Hydroxyapetite implants are goods, but costly for our set up. Methylmethacrylate has a limited role in elderly patients with malignancy and a short life expectancy. Anterior cervical instrumentation has mushroomed over the last decade. Acceptable as methods of immediate stabilisation, the choice of the system varies with the surgeon. The authors use simple titanium plates with locking screws for the purpose.
  2 4,166 1
Effect of pipecuronium and pancuronium on intracranial pressure and cardiovascular parameters in patients with supratentorial tumours.
B Shaheen, J Wig, S Grewal, MK Tewari
January-March 2000, 48(1):37-42
A prospective, randomised, single blind study was conducted to evaluate and compare the intracranial pressure (ICP) and cardiovascular effects of pipecuronium (PPC) and pancuronium (PNC) in 20 patients undergoing supratentorial surgery. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group I (n = 10) received pancuronium (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and in Group II (n = 10) pipecuronium (0.07 mg kg(-1)) for intubation. Intracranial pressure (ICP), heart rate (HR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), nasopharyngeal temperature and arterial blood gases (ABG) were monitored at the following time periods: before induction (0 minutes); 3 minutes after thiopentone and muscle relaxant; immediately after intubation; and 4, 6, 8, 10, 20 and 30 minutes following intubation. The rise in intracranial pressure at intubation was significantly greater in group I (21.10+/-3.97 torr, 122.59%) when compared to group II patients (1.80+/-0.70 torr, 10.04%) (p<0.0 1). Cardiovascular parameters also showed a significantly greater degree of rise in group I when compared to group II patients. Heart rate increased by 29+/-6.32 beats min(-1) (33.52%) and systolic arterial pressure by 11.60+/-7.37 torr (9.47%) in group I. These parameters did not change significantly in group II. No significant alterations were observed in the other measured parameters in either of the two groups.
  1 4,894 111
Role of emergency surgery to reduce mortality from rebleed in patients with aneurysmal SAH.
A Varma, VS Mehta, VP Singh, R Patir
January-March 2000, 48(1):56-62
Potentially salvageable patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may rebleed and die after admission to a hospital, awaiting an angiogram or surgery. In an attempt to reduce the number of patients thus lost, we are operating on such patients on an emergency basis. This report is a retrospective analysis of patients operated early after aneurysmal SAH, but during routine working hours, versus patients operated on an emergency basis. During an 18 month period 109 patients underwent surgery for intracranial aneurysm. Fifty two (Group 1) patients were subjected to emergency clipping of the aneurysm, and 57 (Group 2) patients underwent early clipping but during routine working hours. There was no selection bias between the two groups. Another 10 patients in Hunt and Hess Grade II and III rebled and died, after admission, awaiting an angiogram or surgery. The overall mortality for the two groups (Grade I to IV) was 11.9%. Mortality in Groups 1 and 2 was 9.6% and 14.0% respectively. At 1 month, good outcome was recorded in 86.6% patients in grade I, 69.2% patients in grade II and 42.8% patients in grade III in group I compared to 68.7% patients in grade I, 80% patients in grade II and 31.5% patients in grade III in group 2. However, the difference was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference between the incidence of intraoperative brain swelling and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit between the two groups. Grade IV patients had a poor outcome in both the groups. Angiographic vasospasm was associated with poor out come, in either group, in grade IV patients. Patients in Grades I to III should undergo emergency surgery, if the surgeon is experienced and willing to operate at odd hours and necessary support facilities of neuroradiology and neuroanaesthesiology are available. This would avoid deaths in patients awaiting angiograms or surgery.
  1 4,596 149
Safety of acute normovolemic haemodilution with hydroxyethyl starch during intracranial surgery.
KM Kiran Prasad, TS Devaragudi, R Christopher, BA Chandramouli, GS Umamaheswara Rao
January-March 2000, 48(1):63-7
The effect of acute normovolemic haemodilution on haemodynamics, serum osmolality and coagulation parameters was studied in 20 patients undergoing intracranial surgical procedures. After induction of anaesthesia, 740+/-153 ml of blood was collected and the same was replaced with an equal volume of 6% hexaethyl starch. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), central venous pressure (CVP) and end tidal carbon dioxide tension (Et CO2) were monitored for 45 min. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), serum osmolality (Osm), bleeding time (BT), prothrombin time (PT) and platelet count were determined before and 45 min after haemodilution. Hb and Hct were significantly lower following haemodilution (13.1+/-1.8 and 10.3+/-1.7 g/dL for Hb and 38.0+/-4.6%. and 30.1+/-4.5% for Hct). There was no significant change in the HR, BP and Et CO2 throughout the study period. CVP increased marginally from 35 to 45 min but was within normal limits. There was no significant change in serum osmolality, bleeding time and prothrombin time following haemodilution. Platelet count decreased following haemodilution but the values were within normal limits. The brain relaxation, as assessed by a semiquantitative scale, was satisfactory in all cases. None of the patients developed intraoperative brain swelling. In conclusion, acute normovolemic haemodilution with hexaethyl starch is tolerated well haemodynamically. It does not cause changes in serum osmolality which can increase brain oedema. It has no adverse effect on intraoperative haemostasis. It is a safe technique to decrease homologous blood transfusion during intracranial surgery.
  1 5,220 157
Spinal cord tuberculoma and misleading MR imaging.
IK Dhammi, AK Jain
January-March 2000, 48(1):96-96
  1 3,074 115
Bulbar myasthenia presenting as acute respiratory failure--a case report.
HN Ranganath
January-March 2000, 48(1):93-93
  - 9,734 137
Malaria in epileptics--an additional hazard.
M Roy, PK Gangopadhyay, D Guha, T Roy, B Maiti
January-March 2000, 48(1):90-90
  - 3,452 100
Motor dysfunction on the nonhemiplegic side in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage.
PM Gupta, UK Misra, J Kalita
January-March 2000, 48(1):33-6
This study was undertaken to evaluate the motor dysfunction on the nonhemiplegic side in patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and correlate these with radiological and motor evoked potentials findings. 28 patients (23 males, 5 females), with CT proven ICH within 10 days of ictus were subjected to clinical evaluation and central motor conduction studies (CMCT) of upper limbs. The patient's age ranged between 28 and 84 years. Motor signs on the nonhemiplegic side were present in 17 patients in the form of increased tone (10), hyperreflexia (13) and extensor plantar response (10). Sixteen of these patients had severe weakness on the hemiplegic side. Most of the patients had putaminal haemorrhage (13) and thalamic and lobar haemorrhage was seen in 2 patients each. The motor dysfunction on the nonhemiplegic side correlated with midline shift but not with the size of haematoma. CMCT findings correlated with motor signs on the nonhemiplegic side in 6 patients. In the patients without any signs on the nonhemiplegic side, CMCT was normal. Out of 17 patients with motor dysfunction on the nonhemiplegic side 9 revealed improvement in CMCT at 1 month followup. The patients with CMCT abnormalities on the nonhemiplegic side either died (2) or had poor outcome (9). Motor dysfunction on the nonhemiplegic side may be due to tentorial herniation and suggests a poor outcome.
  - 5,483 143
Episodic ataxia : a case report and review of literature.
JP Singhvi, S Prabhakar, P Singh
January-March 2000, 48(1):78-80
This report describes the clinical features of a 29 year female presenting with a 3 years history of episodes of cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus lasting 3-5 days, recurring almost every month. Sleep disturbance and buzzing in ears were noted 3-4 days before each episode. No other precipitant factor was present. Family history was negative. She was diagnosed as a case of episodic ataxia type-2 and was successfully treated with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. She was asymptomatic at 2 year followup.
  - 11,684 244
Enlarging single CT lesions can also spontaneously resolve.
G Singh, P Sobti, RS Bhatia, D Singh
January-March 2000, 48(1):85-7
Computed tomography in two patients, aged 9 and 14 years, with history of focal seizures, revealed single, small, enhancing CT lesions. These patients were treated with albendazole and anticonvulsants. Follow-up CT scans revealed an increase in the size of the solitary lesions. They were managed conservatively and further follow-up CT scans revealed complete resolution of the lesions. The report suggests that some enlarging CT lesions may also spontaneously resolve. The most likely cause of the enlarging lesions was albendazole therapy.
  - 3,873 92
Epilepsy : the indian perspective

January-March 2000, 48(1):98-98
  - 3,195 0
Medically refractory epilepsy

January-March 2000, 48(1):98-98
  - 368 0
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow