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   2018| May-June  | Volume 66 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 15, 2018

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New daily persistent headache: An evolving entity
Ravi Uniyal, Vimal Kumar Paliwal, Sucharita Anand, Paurush Ambesh
May-June 2018, 66(3):679-687
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232291  PMID:29766926
New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is characterized by an abrupt onset of headache that becomes a daily entity, is unremitting and continuous from the onset, and lasts for more than 3 months. Dr Walter Vanast first described NDPH in the year 1986. Originally, it was proposed as a chronic daily headache but it was placed under “other primary headaches” in the International Classification of Headache Disorder Second Edition (ICHD 2nd edition). However, with evolving literature and better understanding of its clinical characteristics, it was classified as a “chronic daily headache” in the ICHD 3rd edition beta. There are still many knowledge-gaps regarding the underlying cause, pathophysiology, natural history and treatment of NDPH. This review tries to revisit the entity and discusses the current status of understanding regarding NDPH.
  5,975 159 -
Craniovertebral junction evaluation by computed tomography in asymptomatic individuals in the Indian population
Chinmaya Dash, Raghav Singla, Mohit Agarwal, Ambuj Kumar, Hitesh Kumar, Shashwat Mishra, Bhawani S Sharma
May-June 2018, 66(3):797-803
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232288  PMID:29766944
Background: The available literature on the anatomy and imaging of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) focusses on the osteometric indices described for the detection of abnormal relationships between the components of CVJ. However, a knowledge of the normal osteometry of this region in the Indian population is critically important for the operating surgeon as it may influence the surgical technique as well as the choice, size and configurations of the implants. It is also important to determine whether critical differences exist between the osteometric data of Indians and the rest of the world for this part of the anatomy. Accordingly, the present study is an attempt to quantitate the osteometric indices for the anatomically normal CVJ in Indian subjects Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied the imaging data of 49 consecutive adult patients (31 males, 18 females) who underwent a computed tomographic (CT) angiogram for suspected vascular conditions unrelated to the craniovertebral junction. Several parameters related to the atlanto-dental relationship, foramen magnum, atlas and axis vertebrae were recorded, including the dimensions of the commonly instrumented bony regions and also the indices related to the CVJ bony relationships. The data was also compared between the two genders, statistically through the Student's t-test using the statistical program “R”. Results: No patient had an atlanto dens interval >2.5 mm. The mean distance of the odontoid tip from the McRae line in this series was 5.11 mm and no patient had the odontoid tip above the McRae line. Female subjects had significantly smaller diameters of C1 lateral masses and odontoid screw trajectory length when compared to males. Additionally, in the Indian population, the length range of odontoid screw trajectory and the thickness of the narrowest part of the C2 pedicles was smaller with respect to similar data from other geographical regions. However, the rest of the parameters resembled the data from studies conducted on populations with other ethnicities. Conclusion: The osteometric parameters of the CVJ in the Indian population are largely similar to those described globally. However, there are some important differences too which can influence the design of surgical implants suited to the Indian population.
  5,405 108 -
Department of Neurosurgery, Madurai Medical College and the development of neurosurgery in South Tamil Nadu
Subbiah Thiruppathy, Ramiah Manimaran, Gopalakrishnan M Niban, Natarajan Muthukumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):807-814
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232298  PMID:29766946
The development of neurosurgery in South Tamil Nadu can be traced to the Department of Neurosurgery, Madurai Medical College and Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. The hospital was established in the year 1940 and Madurai Medical College was started in 1954. Prof. M. Natarajan founded this department in September, 1963. This department has a Neurosurgery Residency Program that is 50 years old. The establishment of this department and its growth to its present stature is documented here.
  4,772 70 -
Telemedicine and neurosciences
Krishnan Ganapathy
May-June 2018, 66(3):642-651
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232346  PMID:29766913
It is well documented that there is an acute shortage of neurologists and neurosurgeons in India and globally. Despite all efforts, it will be impossible to make available neurospecialists in all suburban and rural areas. Simultaneously, there has been an exponential increase in the growth and development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Plummeting costs and unbelievable sophistication in the availability of user-friendly mobile video conferencing devices is making distance meaningless. Geography has become History! Worldwide, the ultraconservative health care industry, in particular, the medical community, has been uniformly slow to adopt and embrace the use of ICT to extend their clinical reach. In the last decade, however, specialists in all branches of neurosciences are slowly accepting the inevitable that telemedicine must and will have to be incorporated into the core of the healthcare delivery system. This literature review summarizes the current use of telemedicine in different subspecialties of neurosciences. The author defines the growth and development of clinical telemedicine in India with special reference to Neurosciences and attempts to show the stellar role telemedicine has to play in enhancing the services provided by doctors. As clinicians regularly using technology, it should not be difficult for us to convince our patients that today a virtual remote consult and management can indeed effectively substitute for a physical face-to-face encounter.
  3,554 88 -
Brain-stem hemangioblastomas: The seemingly innocuous lesion in a perilous location
Jeena Joseph, Sanjay Behari, Shruti Gupta, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Anish Gandhi, Arun Srivastava, Awadhesh K Jaiswal
May-June 2018, 66(3):779-796
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232294  PMID:29766943
Introduction: Hemangioblastomas [75% sporadic, 25% with Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) disease] are highly vascular, benign lesions. The surgical nuances, management, and complication avoidance in brain-stem hemangioblastomas (BHs) have been studied. Material and Methods: Over 18 years, 27(mean age: 29 years; range 15-60 years) consecutive cases of BH underwent microsurgical excision. All patients were assessed clinico-radiologically for neurological deficits and screened for VHL disease. Outcome of the patients was based on Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). Results: 12 out of 19 (70.4%) patients with hydrocephalus underwent a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure. Lower cranial nerve palsy was present in 10 (37%) patients and motor weakness in 13 (48%). The tumours [mean size 3.34 ± 1.06 cm, range: 1.4-5.5 cm; 11 solid, rest solid-cystic; 18 (66.7%) subpial and 9 (33.33%) intramedullary] were divided into four categories based on size: A: <2 cm (n = 5,18.5%); B: 2-3 cm (n = 10,37%); C: 3-4 cm (n = 6,22.2%); D: >4 cm (n = 6,22.2%). Their location was at posterior cervicomedullary junction (n = 12); pontomedullary junction (n = 7); pons (n = 3), medulla (n = 3) and ponto-mesencephalic region (n = 2). Multiple flow voids were seen in >50% patients with tumour >2 cm. 5 patients had syringomyelia; and, 8 had diffuse cervical cord expansion. Two patients with a large vascular tumour underwent preoperative embolization. Six patients had VHL disease; one underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for refractory hypertension; and, the another, nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-six patients underwent a midline suboccipital craniectomy; and, 1 with a cerebellopontine angle tumour, a retromastoid craniectomy. 15 patients underwent total excision; 10 patients, near-total (<10% remaining) excision, and 2 patients, a subtotal (>10% remaining)) excision. Three patients (2 with VHL disease) expired due to exsanguinating hemorrhage, spreading venous thrombosis and aspiration pneumonitis, respectively. At follow-up visit (median: 25 ± interquartile range 2-56months), 17 patients had improved KPS, 4 remained in same status and 3 (recently operated, on tracheostomy) had worsened KPS. Conclusions: Significant improvement is achievable in neurological status in patients following successful extirpation of a brain-stem hemangioblastoma, despite a turbulent perioperative period. Leaving tumour capsule adherent to the brain-stem often helps in preserving brain-stem function. Postoperatively, the patients should be monitored for their respiratory and lower cranial nerve status to prevent aspiration pneumonitis.
  3,145 75 -
Microvascular decompression versus stereotactic radiosurgery as primary treatment modality for trigeminal neuralgia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective comparative trials
Ravi Sharma, Manoj Phalak, Varidh Katiyar, Sachin Borkar, Shashank S Kale, Ashok K Mahapatra
May-June 2018, 66(3):688-694
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232342  PMID:29766927
Objective: The current opinion among neurosurgeons regarding the selection between microvascular decompression (MVD) and gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia is not based on clear evidence. In this meta-analysis, we have attempted to synthesize the findings of the prospective trials comparing the efficacy and complications of the two procedures as primary treatment modality for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. Materials and Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of PubMed for manuscripts comparing the efficacy or complications of MVD and stereotactic radiosurgery for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia. The data of the identified studies was pooled and a meta-analysis was done. Results: Five prospective studies fulfilling the eligibility criteria were identified. The mean age of the patients subjected to gamma knife therapy (GKT) was more than those who underwent MVD. The initial success rate in the pooled data with MVD was 96% (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 93.3%–98.6%) as compared to GKT which was 71.8% (95% C.I. 64.9%–78.7%) with the ratio of 1.309 (95% C.I. 1.217–1.409; P= <0.001). This superiority was sustained till the last follow up available in all the studies. Out of the complications common to both procedures, MVD had a lower rate of facial numbness, with a risk ratio of 0.481 (95% C.I. 0.297–0.778); and dysesthetic pain, with a risk ratio of 0.470 (95% C.I. 0.172–1.286). Conclusions: MVD seems to be more efficacious than GKT as a first line treatment for trigeminal neuralgia immediately as well as on a long term basis. However, the dilemma regarding the choice of treatment to be adopted still remains for special subgroups of patients, like the elderly patients and those in whom no vascular compression has been found during surgery. Further studies are needed for elucidating the unequivocal treatment plan under these circumstances.
  2,593 108 -
Risk factors, symptom severity and functional status among patients with carpel tunnel syndrome
F Sharief, J Kanmani, S Kumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):743-746
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232351  PMID:29766936
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome refers to a constellation of symptoms resulting from compression of the median nerve at the wrist. The characteristic symptoms include pain and numbness in the hands. Aim: To identify the risk factors responsible for carpal tunnel syndrome, to identify the symptom severity as well as functional status of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, and to determine the relationship between symptom severity and functional status among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Settings and Design: A non-experimental descriptive study was conducted. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to assess the risk factors. Standardized questionnaires included the symptom severity scale (SSS) and functional status scale (FSS). Results: The risk factors assessed were the female gender (64%), premorbidities (75%), diabetes mellitus (53%), hypertension (25%), dyslipidemia (24%), osteoarthritis (8%), and impaired thyroid functions (10%). Fifty-one patients were overweight and 8 were obese. There was an association between symptom severity and presence of any of the premorbidities (χ2 = 5.80; P < 0.05). There was also an association between symptom severity and diabetes mellitus (χ2 = 13.62; P < 0.05). A positive correlation was also noted between the symptom severity and the functional status of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (r = 0.705; P = 0.00). Conclusions: Prompt recognition, timely management, and avoidance of risk factors responsible for the manifestations of carpal tunnel syndrome have practical implications in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.
  2,580 85 -
Minimally invasive options for surgical management of adjacent segment disease of the lumbar spine
Mazda K Turel, Mena G Kerolus, Brian T David, Richard G Fessler
May-June 2018, 66(3):755-762
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232335  PMID:29766939
Background: The incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after lumbar spine surgery is a condition that has become increasingly common as the rate of lumbar spine surgery continues to rise. Minimally invasive techniques continue to be refined and offer an opportunity to treat ASD with minimal tissue disruption, lower blood loss, a shorter hospital stay, and decreased morbidity. The aim of this report is to describe the various minimally invasive options for ASD with a comprehensive review of the existing literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS) for ASD of the lumbar spine was conducted. Four basic techniques and their modifications were identified to address ASD. Illustrative cases, surgical techniques, and post-surgical outcomes are described. Results: Four MIS techniques were identified as common surgical methods to correct ASD. (1) Non-instrumented discectomy, foraminotomy, or decompression, (2) anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), (3) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and (4) lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) were found to be MIS techniques that address ASD. ALIF and LLIF provide indirect decompression of the neural foramina, while TLIF provides direct decompression. The addition and removal of screws and rods can be combined with any of these techniques. Conclusions: MIS techniques provide decompression of the neural elements, stabilization, and, potentially, fusion for patients with ASD. These illustrated cases and the review of MIS surgical techniques can provide a comprehensive framework for addressing ASD.
  2,382 58 -
Thalamus and Language: What do we know from vascular and degenerative pathologies
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Elena Crisman, Silvia Gazzin
May-June 2018, 66(3):772-778
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232283  PMID:29766942
Language is a complex cognitive task that is essential in our daily life. For decades, researchers have tried to understand the different role of cortical and subcortical areas in cerebral language representations and language processing. Language-related cortical zones are richly interconnected with other cortical regions (particularly via myelinated fibre tracts), but they also participate in subcortical feedback loops within the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) and thalamus. The most relevant thalamic functions are the control and adaptation of cortico-cortical connectivity and bandwidth for information exchange. Despite having the knowledge of thalamic and basal ganglionic involvement in linguistic operations, the specific functions of these subcortical structures remain rather controversial. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of thalamus in language network, exploring the functional configuration of basal network components. The language specificity of subcortical supporting activity and the associated clinical features in thalamic involvement are also highlighted.
  2,269 60 -
Sleep disorders in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A questionnaire-based study from India
Samhita Panda, Mandaville Gourie-Devi, Ankkita Sharma
May-June 2018, 66(3):700-708
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232327  PMID:29766929
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relatively rare neurological disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord with survival for 3-5 years and rarely beyond 10 years. Sleep disturbances in ALS are underreported and undertreated and there is no related data from India. This study aimed to assess the frequency of sleep disorders in patients of ALS and their determinants. Methods: Patients with definite and probable ALS as per the El Escorial criteria were recruited from May 2014 to April 2016. Functional impairment, presence of sleep specific abnormalities and anxiety and depression were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Results: Forty patients with ALS (23 male; 17 female) with their median age at presentation being 58.5 years (range 44-75 years) and the median duration of illness being 18 months (range: 4-120 months) were includedin the study. Half of the patients had poor sleep quality, which was significantly worse across all components of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) compared to controls. Sleep disorders were observed in 70%, insomnia in 65%, sleep disordered breathing/hypoventilation in 52.5% and restless legs syndrome in 5% patients. Night time awakenings attributable to symptoms associated with ALS were noted in 85%, and anxiety and depression in 57.5% patients. Excessive daytime somnolence emerged as an independent predictor for the presence of sleep disorders in ALS patients on multivariate logistic regression [P = 0.043, odd's ratio (OR) 1.435; 95% confidence interval[CI] (1.011-2.036)]. Conclusion: This is the first study from India providing insight into the presence of sleep disorders in ALS. About half of the patients of ALS had a poor sleep quality and two-thirds suffered from sleep disturbances.
  2,230 69 -
Spectrum of metastatic neoplasms of the brain: A clinicopathological study in a tertiary care cancer centre
Smrita Singh, Usha Amirtham, Chennagiri S Premalata, Kuntegowdanahalli C Lakshmaiah, Lokesh Viswanath, Rekha V Kumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):733-738
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232333  PMID:29766934
Background: While brain metastases (BM) are the most common causes of neurologic disorders in patients with known systemic malignancies, they can often be the initial manifestations of an undetected primary elsewhere. BM are major causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Aims: We describe a mixed population (data from both retrospective and prospective collection) having a BM from a solid tumor. We report the percentage distribution of the most frequent types of BM, confirming the data published in the literature. This paper may play a role in presenting the Southeast Asian reality compared with the Western countries. Setting: A tertiary-care cancer centre. Materials and Methods: Data for 4 years were retrieved from the records of the Department of Pathology of our institute. Hematolymphoid and meningeal tumors were excluded. Hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained slides were reviewed, and in cases with an unknown primary, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was advised. The panel of markers was chosen based on the histomorphology on H and E sections. IHC was done in cases with an unknown primary where paraffin blocks were available. Results: Lung cancer was found to be the most common primary malignancy (n = 30; 48.4%) followed by breast cancer (n = 13; 21%), colorectal cancer (n = 6; 9.6%), and skin cancer (melanoma) [n = 3; 4.8%]. Conclusion: The incidence of BM from lung and breast cancer was similar to that seen in the Western studies. However, BM from colorectal cancer and melanoma show a higher and lower incidence, respectively, in comparison with the Western literature.
  2,180 88 -
Evolution of concepts in the management of craniopharyngiomas: Lessons learnt from Prof. S.N. Bhagwati's article published in 1993
Harjinder S Bhatoe
May-June 2018, 66(3):613-636
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232302  PMID:29766911
  2,136 115 -
Melanotic intracranial epidermoid: Case report and description of a new subtype
Krishnamurthy Sridhar, Mukul Vij
May-June 2018, 66(3):763-766
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232336  PMID:29766940
Intracranial epidermoids are generally seen as hypodense nonenhancing lesions on computed tomography scans; and, as T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Unusual radiological findings have been reported earlier. The authors present the case of a 54-year old male patient who had prior intracranial surgery. On MRI, there was a thick peripheral mantle of diffusion restriction with a central core of brilliant T1 hyperintensity and very black T2 hypointensity. The peripheral mantle showing diffusion restriction was heterogeneously T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense. At surgery, there was a typical pearly white epidermoid peripherally with a greenish-brown centre. Pathology showed abundant extracellular melanin which was also found in the basal layer. The authors present the first case of a melanin pigmented intracranial epidermoid in literature, describing a new histological subtype.
  2,199 51 -
Retracing the natural history of Dravet syndrome: Report and review of literature
Sachin Sureshbabu, Ivy Sebastian, Sudhir Peter, Chindripu Sobhana, Gaurav K Mittal
May-June 2018, 66(3):844-847
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232328  PMID:29766956
  2,050 67 -
Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of cauda equina: A report and review of literature
A Ajaya Kumar, Shaikhali Barodawala
May-June 2018, 66(3):850-852
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232344  PMID:29766958
  2,015 46 -
Corticospinal tract changes in acute brainstem ischemic stroke patients: A diffusion kurtosis imaging study
Huiyou Chen, Liang Jiang, Hong Zhang, Ying-Dong Zhang, Wen Geng, Yuan Feng, Qian Chen, Yu-Chen Chen, Xindao Yin
May-June 2018, 66(3):726-732
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232281  PMID:29766933
Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the corticospinal tract (CST) changes in patients with brainstem ischemic stroke by using the diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) approach.. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one patients with brainstem stroke and 21 group-matched healthy controls underwent brain DKI with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The DKI was obtained by using three b values of 0, 1,000, 2,000 s/mm2 with 15 diffusion directions. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed at four levels: the pons, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), corona radiata, and precentral gyrus. The DKI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and mean kurtosis (MK) values, in these regions were measured from the contralateral to the ipsilateral side of patients and both the left and right sides of healthy controls at all the four selected levels. Results: The ipsilateral side of the ischemic lesion showed a decrease in FA and MD and an increase in MK when compared with the contralateral normal region at all the four selected levels with statistically differences (P < 0.05). At these four selected levels, there were no differences between the left and right sides in healthy controls with MD, FA, and MK (P > 0.05). The MD values of the contralateral side of the ischemic lesion in patients at the four selected levels were significantly higher than those in the corresponding side of the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Compared to the healthy controls, there was a decrease at the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) in FA of the contralateral side of the ischemic lesion in stroke patients (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed for MK values between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The current results suggest that the DKI technique could identify the early microstructural changes along the motor pathway and that these changes were not limited to the ipsilateral side of the ischemic lesion; in fact, the contralateral changes also occurred, especially at the PLIC.
  1,989 67 -
Prognostic value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate in meningitis in postoperative neurosurgical patients
AS Sumanth Kumar, Barada Prasad Sahu, Ashish Kumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):722-725
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232330  PMID:29766932
Objective: To evaluate the prognostic usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate in postoperative bacterial meningitis (POBM) and to establish the optimal CSF lactate cut-off values in our population to identify POBM in neurosurgical patients. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of postoperative neurosurgical patients with presumed and established bacterial meningitis in the Department of Neurosurgery, NIMS, Hyderabad, India, from September 2012 to December 2014. The diagnostic and prognostic values of CSF lactate have been evaluated and compared with other well-established CSF markers. All the patients who have undergone intradural cranial surgery with features of meningism have been included. Results: The study included 37 patients. The CSF value of the first lumbar puncture (LP) was taken to evaluate the diagnostic value of CSF lactate. Twenty three corresponded to Group A, and 14 to Group B. The mean CSF lactate in Group A was 5.94 ± 2.36, and in Group B 4.60 ± 2.31. Subsequent LPs were performed and CSF analyzed to evaluate the prognostic value of CSF lactate. The CSF markers like neutrophil count (P = 0.003), CSF/blood glucose ratio (P = 0.012), CSF lactate (P = 0.024), lymphocyte count (P = 0.046), leukocyte count (P = 0.047) have shown their prognostic value in a descending order. CSF markers like the presence of red blood cells (P = 0.540) and proteins (P = 0.757) did not show prognostic significance. The decline in CSF lactate (content and concentration) after initiation of antibiotics correlated with subsidence of fever (P = 0.0001), decrease in neck rigidity (P = 0.022) and improvement in sensorium. They were also correlated improvement in CSF/blood glucose ratio and CSF white blood cell counts. Conclusions: In our study, CSF lactate was noted to have a dependable prognostic value in POBM. As routine CSF markers can be ambiguous in POBM, CSF lactate can be considered a better alternative for both establishing the diagnosis and prognostication.
  1,881 86 -
Methamphetamine-induced internal carotid artery vasospasm: A rapidly fatal stroke
Chen Fei Ng, Chia Yin Chong
May-June 2018, 66(3):826-827
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232337  PMID:29766948
  1,912 31 -
Measurement of the permeability, perfusion, and histogram characteristics in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with extended Tofts linear model
Ping Yin, Hua Xiong, Yi Liu, Shambhu K Sah, Chun Zeng, Jingjie Wang, Yongmei Li, Nan Hong
May-June 2018, 66(3):709-715
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232324  PMID:29766930
Objective: To investigate the application value of using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with extended Tofts linear model for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and its correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores and disease duration. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DCE-MRI with a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. An extended Tofts linear model was used to quantitatively measure MR imaging biomarkers. The histogram parameters and correlation among imaging biomarkers, EDSS scores, and disease duration were also analyzed. Results: The MR imaging biomarkers volume transfer constant (Ktrans), volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve), fractional plasma volume (Vp), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of contrast-enhancing (CE) lesions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of nonenhancing (NE) lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) regions. The skewness of Ve value in CE lesions was more close to normal distribution. There was no significant correlation among the biomarkers with the EDSS scores and disease duration (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the DCE-MRI with the extended Tofts linear model can measure the permeability and perfusion characteristic in MS lesions and in NAWM regions. The Ktrans, Ve, Vp, CBF, and CBV of CE lesions were significantly higher than that of NE lesions. The skewness of Ve value in CE lesions was more close to normal distribution, indicating that the histogram can be helpful to distinguish the pathology of MS lesions.
  1,902 40 -
Training residents and fellows in the procedure of diagnostic cervicocerebral angiography: Techniques to avoid complications
Xianli Lv, Wei Li, Youxiang Li
May-June 2018, 66(3):652-656
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232292  PMID:29766914
We examine the problems arising when training residents/fellows (RFs) initiate the learning of diagnostic cervicocerebral angiography (DCCA) and describe the steps on how to facilitate the learning process while avoiding complications. The risk of permanent neurological deficit as a result of DCCA ranges from 0.3–0.5%. Factors that correlated with complications include the following: the history of cerebral infarction, infusion of a large amount of contrast medium, a prolonged fluoroscopic time (>80 min) and the efficiency of training received. These findings suggest that the neurological morbidity depends largely upon the technique of catheterization of the patient. In order to reduce the complications arising from the lack of training, a personalised mentorship with a careful supervision of trainees is necessary. To ensure a good patient outcome, a decreased procedural time, awareness of complications at every step of the procedure and their avoidance, as well as the provision of good quality images is necessary. A mentorship program with a close supervision of the RFs is also one of the prerequisites for obtaining a good result.
  1,875 61 -
Cortical hyperintensities: A rare magnetic resonance imaging finding in Wilson's disease
Rajesh Verma, Soumik Sarkar, Anirudda More
May-June 2018, 66(3):876-878
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232325  PMID:29766968
  1,810 46 -
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in adults: A comparative study of Bohan and Peter and European Neuromuscular Center 2004 criteria
Sundaram Challa, Saumya Jakati, Megha S Uppin, Meena A Kannan, Rajasekhar Liza, MK Murthy Jagarlapudi
May-June 2018, 66(3):767-771
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232296  PMID:29766941
Background: Bohan and Peter criteria are widely used for the diagnosis of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). Recently, European Neuromuscular Center (ENMC) formulated criteria to identify subgroups of IIMs. Aim: To compare the two diagnostic criteria in adult IIMs. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of case records of histologically confirmed IIMs in adults between January 2014 and May 2015. Both the Bohan and Peter, and ENMC 2004 criteria were applied in the same group of patients to subgroup the IIMs. Muscle biopsy was evaluated in all the four domains: muscle fiber, inflammatory, connective tissue, and vascular, with the basic panel of histological stains. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM) was diagnosed using ENMC IBM diagnostic research criteria 2011. Results: During the study period, 69 patients fulfilled the ENMC criteria for IIMs including 16 patients with s-IBM. The subgrouping as per the ENMC criteria (53) was: dermatomyositis (DM) in 30; polymyositis (PM) in 2; immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) in 9; and nonspecific myositis (NM) in 12 patients, whereas subgrouping by the Bohan and Peter criteria was DM in 9 and PM with and without connective tissue disease (CTD) in 26 patients only. There was underdiagnosis of DM, as perifascicular atrophy is not recognized as a diagnostic histological feature, and overdiagnosis of PM with and without CTD due to poor characterization of histological features in PM by the Bohan and Peter criteria. Conclusions: Systematic evaluation of muscle biopsy according to the ENMC criteria with basic panel of histochemical stains improved the diagnostic yield of IIM significantly when compared to the Bohan and Peter criteria.
  1,720 74 -
Carpal tunnel syndrome: The lessons learnt and the points often overlooked in its management
Ketan Desai
May-June 2018, 66(3):674-675
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232320  PMID:29766923
  1,660 95 -
Parent artery sacrifice for ruptured aneurysms in acute and chronic phases: A systematic review
Xianli Lv, Wei Li, Huijian Ge, Hengwei Jin, Hongwei He, Chuhan Jiang, Youxiang Li
May-June 2018, 66(3):695-699
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232310  PMID:29766928
Background: Experience with respect to parent vessel sacrifice (PVS) for unclippable/uncoilable ruptured aneurysms is limited. Objective: The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the risk of PVS for unclippable/uncoilable ruptured aneurysms. Materials and Methods: The PUBMED and SCIENCEDIRECT databases were searched using “parent vessel occlusion OR parent artery occlusion” AND “acute subarachnoid hemorrhage” till December 27, 2015, and 1 journal was searched from November 1995 to April 2016 for relevant results. Results: Out of a total of 19 eligible studies, 104 patients with 104 ruptured aneurysms were treated by PVS with or without bypass surgery. Unfavorable outcome [modified Rankin Score (mRS) 4–6] was reported in 14 (13.4%) acute phase patients, with a 9.6% mortality rate. Thirty (28.8%) patients developed ischemic complications and 3 (2.9%) developed bleeding complications. The complication rate was higher for PVS in the acute phase (38.0% vs. 12.0%; P= 0.015). The unfavorable clinical outcome was found to be significant in acute phase versus chronic phase (17.7% vs. 0%; P= 0.024). The risk of morbidity associated with distal vessel [posterior cerebral artery (PCA) + superior cerebellar artery (SCA) + posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)] sacrifice was not lower than that associated with major vessel [internal carotid artery (ICA) + basilar artery (BA) + vertebral artery (VA)] sacrifice (P = 0.961). Conclusion: Complication and unfavorable outcome rates associated with PVS for acutely ruptured aneurysms are high. The risk of distal vessel sacrifice was not lower than major vessel sacrifice in the acute phase.
  1,675 44 -
Primary spinal cord glioblastoma metastasizing to the cerebellum: A missed entity
Akarsh Jayachandran, Gandham E Jonathan, Bimal Patel, Krishna Prabhu
May-June 2018, 66(3):854-857
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232347  PMID:29766960
  1,646 45 -
Hypersexuality following anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture
Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Moushumi Purkayastha, Pinaki Dutta, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Anil Bhansali
May-June 2018, 66(3):868-871
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232289  PMID:29766965
  1,638 52 -
Founders of Indian Neurosciences: Professor Krishna Prasad Bhargava(5th October 1925- 16th August 1991)
Prakash N Tandon, Balram Bhargava
May-June 2018, 66(3):610-612
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232314  PMID:29766910
  1,603 60 -
Fetal meningocele manqué
MH Shabina Banu, Rajeswaran Rangasami, Indrani Suresh
May-June 2018, 66(3):879-881
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232299  PMID:29766970
  1,608 42 -
In vitro differentiation of neural cells from human adipose tissue derived stromal cells
Shruti D Dave, Chetan N Patel, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
May-June 2018, 66(3):716-721
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232326  PMID:29766931
Background: Stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), are endowed with self-renewal capability and hence hold great opportunity for the institution of replacement/protective therapy. We propose a method for in vitro generation of stromal cells from human adipose tissue and their differentiation into neural cells. Materials and Methods: Ten grams of donor adipose tissue was surgically resected from the abdominal wall of the human donor after the participants' informed consents. The resected adipose tissue was minced and incubated for 1 hour in the presence of an enzyme (collagenase-type I) at 370C followed by its centrifugation. After centrifugation, the supernatant and pellets were separated and cultured in a medium for proliferation at 370C with 5% CO2 for 9-10 days in separate tissue culture dishes for generation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). At the end of the culture, MSC were harvested and analyzed. The harvested MSC were subjected for further culture for their differentiation into neural cells for 5-7 days using differentiation medium mainly comprising of neurobasal medium. At the end of the procedure, culture cells were isolated and studied for expression of transcriptional factor proteins: orthodenticle homolog-2 (OTX-2), beta-III-tubulin (β3-Tubulin), glial-fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin-β2. Results: In total, 50 neural cells-lines were generated. In vitro generated MSC differentiated neural cells' mean quantum was 5.4 ± 6.9 ml with the mean cell count being, 5.27 ± 2.65 × 103/μl. All of them showed the presence of OTX-2, β3-Tubulin, GFAP, synaptophysin-β2. Conclusion: Neural cells can be differentiated in vitro from MSC safely and effectively. In vitro generated neural cells represent a potential therapy for recovery from spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative disease.
  1,605 43 -
Brain metastasis and their management: A current perspective
Kuntal Kanti Das, Sushila Jaiswal
May-June 2018, 66(3):739-742
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232312  PMID:29766935
  1,530 114 -
Backward glance o'er travel'd roads
K Rajasekharan Nair
May-June 2018, 66(3):604-609
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232301  PMID:29766909
  1,575 66 -
Enhanced resection of primary high-grade gliomas using a combination of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative fluorescence (5-aminolevulinic acid): A single-centre experience
Vikas Sharma, Rishabh Kedia, Karanjit S Narang, Ajaya N Jha
May-June 2018, 66(3):747-752
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232334  PMID:29766937
Background: The extent of resection (EOR) of a tumor is a proven prognostic factor in patients undergoing surgery for suspected high grade glioma. A few recent publications have shown the importance of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guidance in order to maximally increase the EOR. Aim: The objective of our study was to calculate the effect on survival of patients with high grade gliomas of resection using both iMRI and 5-ALA fluorescence-guidance as intraoperative adjuncts. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with gadolinum-enhancing high gliomas on preoperative MRI undergoing surgical excision were included in a prospective study. Surgeries began under white-light conditions. Intermittently, a blue light filter was switched on to search for remaining tumor tissue not visible to the naked eye. When gross total resection (GTR) was thought to have been achieved, iMRI was done to check for any contrast-enhancing part left behind. Surgery was concluded or resumed based on the iMRI findings. Histopathological examination of the tumor tissue was done. All patients underwent immediate postoperative MRI at the end of the surgery to calculate the EOR. Results: Our results showed that out of the total of 37 patients, 17 patients died during the follow up period and 11 patients were still alive. The mean survival was 587.1 days and median survival was 491 days with a range of 342 to 943 days. When we compared these figures with the average survival in patients with a high grade glioma, i.e., 9 to 14 months, it showed that both the above mentioned modalities were very helpful in increasing the EOR, and in turn, the overall survival. Conclusions: The use of iMRI as well as fluorescence-guidance are appropriate methods to improve the extent of resection in surgery of contrast-enhancing gliomas. Best results can be achieved by the complementary use of both modalities.
  1,556 50 -
An unusual cause of combined cauda equina and conus medullaris syndrome
Suraj Sajeev, R Krishnakumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):886-888
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232280  PMID:29766974
  1,502 51 -
The cover page

May-June 2018, 66(3):603-603
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232300  PMID:29766908
  1,465 70 -
Episodic ataxia in a child with senataxin mutation
S Sesh, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
May-June 2018, 66(3):842-844
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232295  PMID:29766955
  1,486 42 -
Persistent primitive trigeminal artery- a study of two cases
Musaib Ahmad Dar, Fahad Shafi, Jan Muhammad Suhail, Mohammad Arif Wani, Mohammad Yaqoob Wani, Naseer Ahmad Choh
May-June 2018, 66(3):881-883
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232285  PMID:29766971
  1,473 50 -
A novel cost-effective pillow for prevention of an occipital pressure sore
Jayesh Sardhara, Rachana Mishra
May-June 2018, 66(3):873-875
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232303  PMID:29766967
  1,472 41 -
Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in varicella zoster necrotizing encephalitis
Remya Baburaj, Rajeswaran Rangasami, PS Rajakumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):836-838
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232343  PMID:29766952
  1,463 40 -
A rare association of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome
Sunil Kumar, Ruthira Eshanth, Venkatraman Indiran, Kalaichezhian Mariappan, Prabakaran Maduraimuthu
May-June 2018, 66(3):847-849
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232340  PMID:29766957
  1,461 42 -
Anaplastic astrocytoma and pituitary macroadenoma within the same patient: A rare case of intracranial collision tumor
Harish Naik, Velho Vernon, Prashant Gade, Laxmikant Bhople, Amrita Guha
May-June 2018, 66(3):857-860
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232341  PMID:29766961
  1,436 34 -
Pigmented intramedullary spinal cord meningioma mimicking a nervous system infection: An unusual report and review of the literature
Shambu Kumar Sah, Xiaoqing Shi, Sanjeet Kumar Sah, Pranesh Kumar Yadav, Yongmei Li
May-June 2018, 66(3):832-835
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232293  PMID:29766951
  1,379 31 -
What is the current role of bypass surgery in the management of cerebral aneurysms?
Laligam N Sekhar, Chun-Yu Cheng, Harley Brito Da Silva, Zeeshan Qazi
May-June 2018, 66(3):661-663
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232316  PMID:29766916
  1,346 60 -
Widening the circle of service: The gift of academic neurosurgery
Vedantam Rajshekhar
May-June 2018, 66(3):637-641
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232297  PMID:29766912
  1,326 69 -
Carpal tunnel syndrome: The precipitating risk factors
Gopal Krishnan, Dhananjaya I Bhat, B Indira Devi
May-June 2018, 66(3):673-673
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232319  PMID:29766922
  1,300 87 -
Giant cell tumor at the clivus: Not an area 51
Ayusman Satapathy, Manjul Tripathi, Ravi B Chauhan, Jenil Gurnaani, Sandeep Mohindra
May-June 2018, 66(3):861-864
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232286  PMID:29766962
  1,343 32 -
Primary cerebellar agenesis in a normal man
Shah Omair, Wani Arif, Bashir Muiez, Suhail Jan, Dar Musaib, Gojwari Tariq
May-June 2018, 66(3):871-873
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232287  PMID:29766966
  1,319 35 -
Proposed solution for dorsal internal carotid artery aneurysms: Suggestion of a novel new clip design
Ashish Aggarwal, Manarshhjot Singh, Parveen Kalra
May-June 2018, 66(3):804-806
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232282  PMID:29766945
Dorsal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are notorious for their high morbidity and mortality. They have an extremely fragile wall and have a high chance of rupture and clip slippage during the intraoperative and postoperative period. Strategies proposed to mitigate these problems encompass including part of the normal ICA wall in addition to neck of aneurysm in clip blades, as well as the use of encircling materials (silicon, cellulose, Weck's clip) over a clip. The Achilles' heel of the problem is to take an appropriate thickness of the normal ICA in clip blades. Too less or too much of this can spell disaster. This is easier said than done during an actual surgical procedure. So, in this difficult situation, is there any better method of clipping? We propose a fenestrated clip in which the clip blades are placed just at the beginning of fenestration and at right angles to the clip. This occludes the aneurysm taking part of the normal ICA wall in the clip blades. The fenestration hugs the ICA and prevents clip slippage. This has been explained with appropriate figures in the two and three-dimensional format. There cannot be a single stop solution for a complex disease like dorsal ICA aneurysm. The present proposed design is an attempt to provide a better clipping chance in these difficult aneurysms. Future work on this design can prove its usefulness.
  1,291 49 -
Parent vessel occlusion and revascularization: A dying art?
Paritosh Pandey
May-June 2018, 66(3):657-660
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232315  PMID:29766915
  1,283 54 -
Current trends in the management of intracranial aneurysms and how neurosurgical residency programs in India are falling behind in this revolution
Krishna Chaitanya Joshi
May-June 2018, 66(3):892-893
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232332  PMID:29766976
  1,279 45 -
A summary of some of the recently published, seminal papers in neurosciences
Mazda K Turel, Manjul Tripathi, Ravi Yadav, PR Srijithesh, Aastha Takkar, Sahil Mehta, Chirag K Ahuja, Anant Mehrotra, Kuntal K Das
May-June 2018, 66(3):815-825
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232306  PMID:29766947
  1,265 53 -
Change in the natural profile of Duchenne muscular dystrophy with the judicious use of steroids
Sunil Pradhan, Ananya Das
May-June 2018, 66(3):893-895
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232304  PMID:29766977
  1,245 50 -
False localizing oculomotor nerve palsy after endovascular coiling of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm
Boby V Maramattom, Vijay Jayakrishnan, Dilip Panikar, S Shyam Sundar
May-June 2018, 66(3):830-832
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232345  PMID:29766950
  1,194 35 -
Quantification of blood brain barrier using DCE MRI in multiple sclerosis - Technical issues and its possible role in routine clinical practice
Rakesh K Gupta
May-June 2018, 66(3):671-672
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232323  PMID:29766921
  1,176 41 -
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI perfusion in multiple sclerosis: Is this the way to go?
Neetu Soni, Sunil Kumar
May-June 2018, 66(3):669-670
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232318  PMID:29766920
  1,162 48 -
Wilder Penfield. The second career with other essays and addresses.
Sunil Pandya
May-June 2018, 66(3):896-897
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232307  PMID:29766978
  1,142 44 -
High time we focus on sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis!
Garima Shukla, Anupama Gupta
May-June 2018, 66(3):664-665
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232309  PMID:29766917
  1,134 42 -
The mysterious case of bilateral sensory neural hearing loss (superficial siderosis)
Pushpendra N Renjen, Dinesh Chaudhari
May-June 2018, 66(3):839-840
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232339  PMID:29766953
  1,134 35 -
Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Blood-brain barrier permeability and intravascular leakage measurement by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and the extended Tofts linear model
Basant K Puri
May-June 2018, 66(3):667-668
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232317  PMID:29766919
  1,129 38 -
Sieve-like basal ganglia: A rare MRI presentation of vascular parkinsonism
Sunil Pradhan, Robin Bansal
May-June 2018, 66(3):878-879
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232349  PMID:29766969
  1,118 46 -
Necklace body myopathy: A rare entity
Aditya Choudhary, Saurabh Bansal, Louis Gaspar Balan, Manoj Goyal, Manish Modi
May-June 2018, 66(3):841-842
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232350  PMID:29766954
  1,101 46 -
Sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Prahlad K Sethi, Nitin K Sethi
May-June 2018, 66(3):666-666
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232305  PMID:29766918
  1,098 42 -
Why do we need the humanities in medicine?
Sunil K Pandya
May-June 2018, 66(3):889-891
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232308  PMID:29766975
  1,088 33 -
Management of brain-stem hemangioblastomas: Surgical skill versus technological advancements
Christopher P Deibert, Faiz Ahmad
May-June 2018, 66(3):676-677
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232322  PMID:29766924
  1,086 32 -
Large serpentine aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery
Amith S Kumar, Julie Sachdeva, Neeraj Balaini, Ritu Shree, Manoj K Goyal, Vivek Lal, Chirag Ahuja
May-June 2018, 66(3):884-886
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232329  PMID:29766973
  1,066 41 -
Eye in the brain
Manjul Tripathi, Nagesh Varshney, Aman Batish, Sandeep Mohindra
May-June 2018, 66(3):883-884
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232284  PMID:29766972
  1,037 69 -
The ASSI monographs
Sunil K Pandya
May-June 2018, 66(3):898-901
  1,054 42 -
Intracranial chondroma without meningeal attachment
Kadir Oktay, Umit Akin Dere, Murat Arslan, Sevcihan Kesen, Tufan Ciftci
May-June 2018, 66(3):865-866
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232290  PMID:29766963
  1,061 30 -
Trigeminal neuralgia caused by a venous angioma: The neuroimaging and surgical findings
Arslan Aydan, Ulus Sila, Berkman Z Mehmet, Karaarslan Ercan
May-June 2018, 66(3):852-853
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232338  PMID:29766959
  1,036 30 -
Management of brain-stem hemangioblastomas: A bird's-eye view
Abhay K Varma
May-June 2018, 66(3):678-678
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232321  PMID:29766925
  1,025 34 -
Calvarial intraosseous leiomyoma: Another consideration in children with suspected esosinophilic granuloma
Wenjian Zheng, Liangming Li, Shaohua Lin
May-June 2018, 66(3):866-868
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232331  PMID:29766964
  1,004 26 -
Surgery for high-grade gliomas using intraoperative MRI and fluorescence
Masazumi Fujii
May-June 2018, 66(3):753-754
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232313  PMID:29766938
  974 49 -
Inadvertent stent placement in the persistent hypoglossal artery: A case for caution
Shyam S Rao, Lakshmi Shankar, Kumar Rajamani
May-June 2018, 66(3):828-830
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.232348  PMID:29766949
  978 32 -
Online since 20th March '04
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