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Figure 10: Pictorial representation of the Orbis Sigma valve functioning. Black arrow represents the direction of CSF flow from proximal to distal end. There is a flexible silicon membrane attached at both ends (represented by the violet-coloured membrane in the diagram; the dotted lines represent how the membrane moves as ICP increases) with a specially designed red ruby pin in the middle, and sapphire plates at mobile ends of the silicon membrane (represented by the black lines). Left sided pictures represent the section across the valve. Right sided pictures represent the cross-section at the level of the ruby pin to indicate resistance offered to flow. (a) No flow state, when ICP is not high, the membrane remains closed. (b and c) Open state, when ICP increases to the range of 8-35 cm H2O, the specially designed ruby pin helps to maintain CSF flow across the valve at a constant rate of 20-30ml/h. (d) Emergency state, when ICP > 35cm H2O, the valve fully opens to let out more CSF

Figure 10: Pictorial representation of the Orbis Sigma valve functioning. Black arrow represents the direction of CSF flow from proximal to distal end. There is a flexible silicon membrane attached at both ends (represented by the violet-coloured membrane in the diagram; the dotted lines represent how the membrane moves as ICP increases) with a specially designed red ruby pin in the middle, and sapphire plates at mobile ends of the silicon membrane (represented by the black lines). Left sided pictures represent the section across the valve. Right sided pictures represent the cross-section at the level of the ruby pin to indicate resistance offered to flow. (a) No flow state, when ICP is not high, the membrane remains closed. (b and c) Open state, when ICP increases to the range of 8-35 cm H2O, the specially designed ruby pin helps to maintain CSF flow across the valve at a constant rate of 20-30ml/h. (d) Emergency state, when ICP > 35cm H2O, the valve fully opens to let out more CSF