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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2003  |  Volume : 51  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 55--59

Clinical, radiological and neurophysiological spectrum of JEV encephalitis and other non-specific encephalitis during post-monsoon period in India


1 Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi PGIMS, Lucknow, India
2 Department of Virology, KG Medical College, Lucknow, India

Correspondence Address:
U K Misra
Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi PGIMS, Rae Bareily Road, Lucknow-226014
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 12865517

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Aims: To study the spectrum of encephalitis during the post-monsoon period in a tertiary care centre of India. Methods: Clinical, neurophysiological and radiological features of patients with encephalitis are reported in this communication. The patients were subjected to clinical examination, CT or MRI scan, EEG, motor and somatosensory evoked potentials in both upper and lower limbs bilaterally and concentric needle electromyography. The laboratory studies for Japanese encephalitis (JE) comprised virus isolated, IgM capture ELISA, mercaptoethanol test and hemagglutination inhibition titre in paired sera against JE virus. Patients were classified into JEV encephalitis and non-specific encephalitis. On the basis of radiological features, they were classified into group I (thalamic or basal ganglia involvement), group II (brainstem involvement only) and group III (normal MRI). The outcome was defined into poor (bedridden), partial (dependent for daily activities) and complete (independent) recovery at the end of 3 months. Results: Out of 26 patients (Age 7-70 years, mean 24.8 years), laboratory evidences of JEV infection was present in 14 patients and one patient had herpes simplex encephalitis. The patients with JEV encephalitis had more severe illness as evidenced by lower GCS score, higher frequency of anterior horn cell involvement, movement disorders and more extensive MRI changes. The EEG and MEP changes were also more frequently abnormal in the JEV group. On radiology, 15 patients had thalamic or basal ganglia involvement (group I), 3 isolated midbrain involvement (group II) and 8 had normal MRI (group III). Laboratory evidence consistent with JE were present in 11 out of 12 patients in group I and 3 out of 8 in group III, however, there was no laboratory evidence of JE virus infection in patients with isolated brainstem involvement. There was overlap in the neurologic and systemic manifestations in all the 3 radiological groups as well as in the groups with and without laboratory evidences of JEV infection. Conclusion: The observed overlap in neurological and systemic involvement in different subgroups of encephalitis may be due to JE or JE-like viral infection. The possibility of strain variation, change in virulence of organism or immunity of host needs further studies.






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Online since 20th March '04
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