Neurology India
menu-bar5 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus
  Users online: 934  
 Home | Login 
About Editorial board Articlesmenu-bullet NSI Publicationsmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Videos Etcetera Contact
  Navigate Here 
  » Next article
  » Previous article 
  » Table of Contents
 Resource Links
  »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
  »  Article in PDF (393 KB)
  »  Citation Manager
  »  Access Statistics
  »  Reader Comments
  »  Email Alert *
  »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Introduction
 »  Disease Burden
 »  Diagnosis of TBM
 »  Conclusion
 »  References

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1513    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 31    

Recommend this journal


Year : 2010  |  Volume : 58  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 716-722

Tuberculous meningitis: The challenges

The Institute of Neurological Sciences, CARE Hospital, Nampally, Hyderabad, India

Date of Acceptance17-Sep-2010
Date of Web Publication28-Oct-2010

Correspondence Address:
J. M. K. Murthy
The Institute of Neurological Sciences, CARE Hospital, Exhibition Road, Nampally, Hyderabad - 500 001
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.72178

Rights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a serious meningitic infection commonly found to occur in the developing countries endemic to tuberculosis. Based on the clinical features alone, the diagnosis of TBM can neither be made nor excluded with certainty. Unfortunately there is still no single diagnostic method that is both sufficiently rapid and sensitive. Most factors found to correlate with poor outcome can be directly traced to the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. The only way to reduce the mortality and morbidity is by early diagnosis and timely recognition of complications and institution of the appropriate treatment strategies.

Keywords: Antituberculous drugs, elevated intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, hyponatremia, tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis, vasculitis

How to cite this article:
Murthy J. Tuberculous meningitis: The challenges. Neurol India 2010;58:716-22

How to cite this URL:
Murthy J. Tuberculous meningitis: The challenges. Neurol India [serial online] 2010 [cited 2023 Mar 31];58:716-22. Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2010/58/5/716/72178

 » Introduction Top

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is still one of the common infections of central nervous system (CNS) and poses significant diagnostic and management challenges, more so in the developing world. [1] Despite modern antituberculosis chemotherapy, 20% to 50% [2] of patients still die, and many of the survivors have significant neurological deficits. Death from TBM is strongly associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment. This review discusses some of these challenges.

 » Disease Burden Top

Global burden of tuberculosis is still high, particularly in developing countries; and globally, there were an estimated 9.27 million new cases (139 per 100,000 population) of tuberculosis in 2007, and the number of prevalent cases was 13.7 million (206 per 100,000 population). [3] The incidence of CNS tuberculosis generally reflects the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis in the community. About 10% of patients who have tuberculosis develop CNS disease. [4] HIV infection predisposes to the development of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, particularly tuberculous meningitis. [5] With 206 per 100,000 prevalent cases of tuberculosis in 2007 [1] and the projected incidence of cases of CNS tuberculosis being 20.6 per 100,000 population in the year 2007, most of it would be in the high-burden countries. Incidence rates of tuberculous meningitis are age specific and range from 31.5 per 100,000 (<1 year) to 0.7 per 100,000 (10-14 years) in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. [6] The estimated mortality due to tuberculous meningitis in India is 1.5 per 100,000 population. [7] HIV co-infection is associated with higher complication and case fatality rates. [8],[9]

 » Diagnosis of TBM Top

TBM cannot be diagnosed clinically with certain and rapid diagnosis, particularly in patients with grade II and III disease, [10] is critical for instituting appropriate interventions to achieve good outcomes. In a significant number of patients, the diagnosis of TBM is empirical and is based on clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging data.

Clinical diagnosis

Clinical diagnosis of TBM is difficult as the clinical features are nonspecific and vary widely, and is often diagnosed when brain damage has already occurred. [11],[12],[13] The classical triad of meningitis, viz., fever (adults, 60%-95%; children, 67%), headache (adults, 50%-80%; children, 25%) and signs of meningismus (adults, 40%-80%; children, 98%), may not be present in all the patients. [12] Altered mental status is a more common presenting feature in children as compared to adults. [13] In the elderly, signs of meningismus may be absent and seizures occur more commonly. [14] Patients with HIV co-infection may less commonly have fever, headache and meningismus, and they are more likely to have an altered mental status. [15],[16]

Based on the clinical features alone, the diagnosis of TBM can neither be made nor excluded with certainty. In children the clinical variables predictive of TBM include symptoms persisting for more than 6 days, optic atrophy, focal neurologic deficit, abnormal movements, and a CSF leukocyte differential of less than 50% neutrophils. [17] The diagnostic sensitivity was 98%, and specificity was 44% when at least one feature was present; and sensitivity was 55%, and specificity was 98% if three or more features were present. An adult study in Vietnam identified five clinical variables predictive of diagnosis of TBM: age (<36 years: 2; >36 years: 0); white cell count (>15000: 4; <15000: 0); history of illness (>6 days: -5; <6 days: 0); CSF leukocyte count (>750: 3; <750: 0), and percent of CSF neutrophils (>90: 4; <90: 9). [18] A maximum score of four or more on admission was diagnostic of TBM. This diagnostic rule had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 79%.

Laboratory diagnosis

Laboratory diagnosis of TBM includes many diagnostic methods. Unfortunately there is still no single diagnostic method that is both sufficiently rapid and sensitive. Several of the diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of TBM are relatively insensitive.Most often, the diagnosis is dependent on lumbar puncture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. CSF of untreated TBM typically shows moderate lymphocytic pleocytosis, moderately elevated protein concentration and low glucose. However, the CSF profile of TBM mimics the profiles of a large list of both infectious and noninfectious meningitic processes. Acellular CSF has been reported in the elderly and in patients with HIV-co-infection. [2],[11],[13],[19] Bacteriological diagnosis, demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) of M. tuberculosis by Ziehl-Neelsen stain (sensitivity, 25%) and culture (sensitivity, 18%-83%) is highly specific (100%). [13] In the Vietnam study, volume of CSF, duration of symptoms, CSF neutrophil count, lactate and glucose were all independently associated with bacteriological confirmation. [20] Tuberculostearic acid is a fatty acid component of the M. tuberculosis cell wall, which has been detected in CSF of patients with TBM, and the method has good sensitivity (95%-100%) and specificity (91%-99%). But the limitations are that it requires an expensive equipment and considerable expertise. [2]

Tests to detect M. tuberculosis-specific antibodies and antigen in CSF of patients with TBM are rapid and less expensive. But these techniques are limited by the inability to differentiate acute infection from previous infection and by problems with cross-reactivity, in addition to variable and often poor sensitivity and specificity. For the antibody assays, the reported sensitivity and specificity are 52%-93% and 58%-99%, respectively. Similar are the rates for antigen assays; the reported sensitivity and specificity are 38%-94% and 95%-100%, respectively. [2]

Commercially available nucleic-acid amplification and other polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays may provide a screening tool for the diagnosis of TBM. The value of these assays lies largely in the rapidity with which results can be obtained and the very good specificity of these tests. [19] A systematic review of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of commercially available nucleic-acid amplification assays for TBM revealed 56% sensitivity and 98% specificity, and the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 44% and 35.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of these assays is too low - about half of those with a negative result will have the disease. [21]


Neuroimaging, both contrast computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), reveals the pathology and the complications of TBM. The image characteristics are nonspecific and include basal meningeal enhancement, hydrocephalus, tuberculoma(s) and infarcts [13],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29] ; but when correlated with the given clinical features, they may give a clue for the diagnosis. [22] Certain imaging findings on contrast CT seem to be specific for TBM in children: basal meningeal enhancement, tuberculomas, or both (sensitivity, 89%; and specificity, 100%) [23] ; and presence of hyperdensity in the basal cisterns in the noncontrast CT scan. [24]

Treatment of tuberculous meningitis

Drug treatment

There is scarcity of controlled trials of antituberculous drugs in CNS tuberculosis. Most of the guidelines follow the model of short-course chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis: an "intensive phase" of treatment with four drugs, followed by treatment with two drugs during a prolonged "continuation phase." [11] Infectious Disease Society of America, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Thoracic Society guidelines recommend an initial 2-month induction therapy with isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, followed by 7-to 10-month additional isoniazid and rifampin for an isolate that is sensitive to these drugs. Recent systemic review suggests that 6 months' regime might be sufficient if the likelihood of drug resistance is low. [30]

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

In 2008, an estimated 440,000 cases of multidrug-resistant (resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin) tuberculosis emerged globally, with India and China together accounting for almost 50% of the total cases worldwide. [31] Further, cases of extensively drug-resistant (EDR) tuberculosis (resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin plus resistant to a fluoroquinolone and injectable second-line drugs) have been reported. [2],[3] In high-burden countries, the proportion of tuberculosis cases that are multidrug-resistant (MDR) may range from 1% to 14% or more. [32] Thus the probability of a patient with TBM in high-burden countries having MDR tuberculosis would be 0.1% to 1.4%. It would be extremely difficult clinically to suspect MDR TBM. In-hospital case-fatality rate was 57% in patients with MDR tuberculous meningitis, with a significant functional impairment in most of the survivors. [33] The mortality was near 90% in patients with HIV-associated MDR tuberculous meningitis. [34] In a prospective study of Vietnamese adults with TBM, isoniazid and/or streptomycin resistance was associated with slower CSF bacterial clearance but not with any difference in clinical response or outcome. However, combined isoniazid and rifampicin resistance was strongly predictive of death. [35] MDR tuberculosis requires extended treatment with second-line drugs that are less effective and have more adverse effects than isoniazid-based and rifampin-based regimens. [36] With the emergence of EDR tuberculosis, even the second-line drugs will be ineffective. Ethinomide and cycloserine have good CNS penetration and may be used as part of "intensive-phase" treatment regimen in patients with suspected MDR TBM. [2] TMC207, an investigational diarylquinoline compound, acts by specifically inhibiting mycobacterial ATP-synthase and inhibits drug-sensitive and drug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates and is also bactericidal against dormant tubercle bacilli. [37],[38],[39],[40] In patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive pulmonary infection caused by MDR M. tuberculosis, addition of TMC207 to standard therapy was found to reduce the time to conversion to a negative sputum culture as compared with placebo and to increase the proportion of patients with conversion of sputum culture. The drug was well tolerated except for significant nausea. [41]

Adjunctive steroids therapy

Cochrane systematic review concluded that overall adjunctive therapy with corticosteroids reduces the risk of death (relative risk (RR), 0.78). Data on disabling residual neurological deficits from three trials showed that corticosteroids reduced the risk of death or disabling residual neurologic deficit (RR, 0.82). The review recommends routine use of corticosteroids in HIV-negative people with TBM to reduce incidence of death and disabling neurological deficits amongst survivors. Corticosteroids should be used irrespective of patients' age and stage of the disease. [42] Recent Vietnam adult study of adjunctive dexamethasone therapy in TBM demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality but not in morbidity. [43] Further subgroup analysis revealed that this benefit occurred among all patients with severe grades of CNS tuberculosis, and this benefit was not seen in patients with HIV co-infection. This study also found that treatment with dexamethasone was associated with less severe adverse events, particularly in hepatitis.

Treatment of complications

In TBM, potential complications include associated elevated intracranial pressure (eICP), hydroencephalus, vasculitis, acute seizures, and hyponatremia. Aggressive and appropriate treatment of these complications can minimize the secondary brain injury and improve the chance of a good outcome. [1]


The frequency of fever in TBM has been reported to vary between 60% and 95%. [11] Despite considerable research, whether infection-related fever is globally beneficial or harmful remains unclear. [44] Fever exacerbates the degree of resulting neuronal injury in the presence of acute brain insult [45],[46],[47] and also raises ICP. [48] No data exist to determine the effect of fever on the pathology and ICP in TBM. Even in the absence of convincing data, achieving normothermia might be justified in patients with stage II and III TBM. [10] However, one has to exercise caution in patients with associated sepsis. Low or normal temperature during bacteremia has been shown to be associated with poor outcome. [49] Standard fever-management consists of antipyretic drug therapy and external/ physical cooling. Newer methods, viz., surface-cooling and intravascular-cooling devices, are more effective in decreasing fever than standard fever-management protocols. [45]


Disturbances of sodium, intravascular volume, and water are common in TBM. Hyponatremia occurs in 35% to 65% of patients with TBM. [50],[51],[52] In patients with TBM, hyponatremia is an independent predictor of death or severe disability. [53] The differential diagnosis includes central salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS), syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and adrenal insufficiency. The available evidence suggests that the cause of hyponatremia in TBM is CSWS. [54],[55],[56],[57],[58],[59] CSWS involves renal salt loss resulting in hyponatremia and hypovolemia, whereas SIADH involves physiologically inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or increased renal sensitivity to ADH, leading to renal conservation of water and euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia. [60]

At presentation, many of the patients with TBM have compromised volume status. The first step is to assess the volume status and replace the volume with normal saline and simultaneously investigate for hyponatremia. The therapy in CSWS is volume restriction and sodium replacement (0.9% sodium chloride or 3% if necessary). Treatment of hyponatremia developing at a rate of ≥0.5 mmol/L/h should be aggressive, as it is a life-threatening complication. [61] Mineralocorticoid, fludrocortisone supplementation has also been shown to be effective in returning serum sodium levels to normal. [62],[63] Volume restriction is the treatment in SIADH and in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia; 3% sodium chloride is usually combined with frusemide to facilitate free water excretion and correct hyponatremia.

Acute seizures

Acute seizures occur in about 50% of children and in 5% of adults. [12] Rarely status epilepticus (SE), convulsive (CSE) [64] and non-convulsive (NCSE), [65] may complicate TBM. In patients with CNS infections, after the first acute seizure, recurrent seizures are common [66] ; thus probably these patients need antiepileptic drug (AED) prophylaxis to prevent seizure recurrence, at least for the period of resolution or stabilization of acute CNS insult. The treatment strategy in such patients would be acute abortive treatment with benzodiazepines, followed by loading dose of phenytoin/ fosphenytoin and subsequent maintenance therapy. The other alternative drug is valproate or levetericetam. [67],[68],[69] AEDs may be continued if there is high risk of recurrence for a period of 3 to 6 months. [70] While using AEDs, interactions with other co-medications, particularly anituberculous drugs, should be considered. [71],[72] When combined with isoniazid, rifampicin counters the former's inhibitory effect on the metabolism of phenytoin. Isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide and valproic acid are all hepatotoxic drugs; and when used together, they may potentiate hepatotoxicity. Preferably, valproic acid should be avoided; and if given, liver functions should be monitored at regular intervals.


Vascular pathologies associated with TBM, viz., arteritis, arterial spasm, intraluminal thrombus, and external compression of proximal vessels by the exudates in the basal cisterns, compromise cerebral perfusion and oxygen delivery to the brain. [73],[74],[75] Arteritis mostly involves the perforating branches of the major arteries at the base of the brain. [73],[74] It is not clear how to treat this serious complication of tuberculous meningitis and also the compromised cerebral perfusion and infarction. Corticosteroids may be beneficial, probably due to their anti-inflammatory effect. [76] The Vietnam adult study suggests that probably dexamethasone might improve survival from tuberculous meningitis by reducing the incidence of infarction and speeding up the resolution of hydrocephalus. [27] Corticosteroids might antagonize vascular endothelial growth factor β and thereby reduce vasogenic cerebral edema.[77] Gujjar et al.[78] studied the efficacy of triple-H therapy in patients with tuberculous arteritis and suggested that triple-H therapy is safe and may be beneficial in tuberculous arteritis.

Intracranial pressure

In patients with TBM, eICP is one of the predictors of poor outcome. The relative risk of poor outcome in children with clinical features of eICP was reported to be 1.7 (95% CI, 1.7-2.2; P=.002). [13] Presence of hydrocephalus usually signifies eICP; and in patients with hydrocephalus, the stage of the disease at admission is the predictor of poor outcomes. [79],[80],[81],[82] The pathological substrate of eICP includes (1) diffuse edema consequent to encephalitic process; (2) infarcts, micro and macro, secondary to vasculitis of both small and large vessels and the associated space-occupying effect edema; (3) hydrocephalus; (4) space-occupying effect of associated tuberculoma(s). [73],[74] Other players in the pathogenesis of eICP in TBM include fever and hyponatremia. [48],[83]

Clinical presence of papilledema may help to diagnose eICP. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is reliable in assessing severity of brain injury. Any GCS score less than 8 suggests serious pathology and possible eICP. In addition, neuroimaging provides a good idea about the possible pathological substrate of eICP and helps in identifying tuberculomas and space-occupying infarcts, hydrocephalus and severity of cerebral edema or the presence of brain shift. There are no established guidelines for when to institute ICP monitoring in patients who have tuberculous meningitis with eICP. It will be appropriate to monitor ICP in patients with tuberculous meningitis with feature of ICP and grade II and III disease with no pathology that requires surgery.

Management of eICP should be carried out in a stepwise fashion like in any other clinical setting. The administration of osmotic agents is one of the principal strategies to lower eICP, particularly in patients with no pathology that requires surgery. The commonly used osmotic agents are mannitol and hypertonic saline. [84],[85],[86],[87],[88] But none of the studies have systematically evaluated the efficacy of the osmotic agents. Similarly there is hardly any study reporting treatment of eICP on the basis of an ICP-targeted approach. [87] The safety and efficacy of hypertonic saline in the treatment of eICP in other clinical settings have been well established. However, caution is advised in cases of high osmolar loads because they carry increased risks for potentially deleterious consequences of hypernatremia or may induce osmotic blood-brain barrier opening with possibly harmful extravasation of the hypertonic solution into the brain tissue. [88] Hypertonic saline is without the risks of dehydration and tubular damage, as in the case of mannitol.

Hydrocephalus can be treated with diuretics, osmotic agents, serial lumbar punctures, external ventricular drainage or ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Addition of acetazolamide and furosemide was significantly more effective in achieving normal ICP than antituberculous drug treatment alone. [89],[90] However, patients on medical treatment should be closely monitored to detect any worsening or lack of improvement, and shunt surgery should be considered in case of failure of medical management. In TBM, ventriculoperitoneal shunt is associated with favorable outcome. The stage of the disease at presentation is the predictor of outcome following shunt surgery. [79],[80],[81],[82] In mild and moderate hydrocephalus, early shunt surgery (2 days after diagnosis) was found to be associated with better outcomes compared to delayed surgery (3 weeks after diagnosis). [91]

In patients with TBM, associated space-occupying tuberculoma(s) may be the substrate for eICP. Growing evidence suggests that most often tuberculomas resolve with antituberculous treatment. [1] However, surgical excision is indicated in (1) tuberculoma causing obstructive hydrocephalus and significant eICP; (2) tuberculoma causing obstructive hydrocephalus and not resolving on medical treatment; (3) large space-occupying tuberculomas with eICP; (4) tuberculomas with associated compartmental shifts and not resolving with medical treatment. [1]

 » Conclusion Top

TBM is a serious CNS infection associated with significant mortality and high morbidity among the survivors. [2],[13] Most factors found to correlate with poor outcome can be directly traced to the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. [13],[92] The only way to reduce mortality and morbidity is by early diagnosis and timely recognition of complications and institution of the appropriate treatment strategies. However, still the most challenging aspect is early diagnosis with certainty, and the diagnosis is hampered by slow and insensitive diagnostic methods. The other major emerging challenge is treating MDR TBM.

 » References Top

1.Murthy JM. Management of intracranial pressure in tuberculous meningitis. Neurocrit Care 2005;2:306-12.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Rock RB, Olin M, Baker CA, Molitor TW, Peterson PK. Central nervous system tuberculosis: Pathogenesis and clinical aspects. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008;21:243-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Global tuberculosis control: Epidemiology, strategy, financing, WHO report 2009 (publication No. WHO/HMT/TB/2009.411). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2009.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Dye C, Scheele S, Dolin P, Pathania V, Raviglione MC. Consensus statement. Global burden of tuberculosis: Estimated incidence, prevalence, and mortality by country. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring Project. JAMA 1999;282:677-86.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Bishburg E, Sunderam G, Reichman LB, Kapila R. Central nervous system tuberculosis with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and its related complex. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:210-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Donald PR, Schoeman JF. Tuberculous meningitis. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1719-20.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.Chakraborty AK. Estimating mortality from tuberculous meningitis in a community: Use of available epidemiological parmeters in the Indian context. Ind J Tub 2000;47:9-12.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Thwaites GE, Duc Bang N, Huy Dung N, Thi Quy H, Thi Tuong Oanh D, Thi Cam Thoa N, et al. The influence of HIV infection on clinical presentation, response to treatment and outcome in adults with tuberculous meningitis. J Infect Dis 2005;192:2134-41.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.van der Weert EM, Hartgers NM, Schaaf HS, Eley BS, Pitcher RD, Wieselthaler NA, et al. Comparison of diagnostic criteria of tuberculous meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006;25:65-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.British Medical Research Council. Streptomycin treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Br Med J 1948;1:582-97.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Thwaites GE, Hein TT. Tuberculous meningitis: Many questions, too few answers. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:160-70.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Udani PM, Parekh UC, Dastur DK. Neurological and related syndromes in CNS tuberculous meningitis: Clinical features and pathogenesis. J Neurol Sci 1971;14:341-57.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.van Well GT, Paes BF, Terwee CB, Springer P, Roord JJ, Donald PR, et al. Twenty years of pediatric tuberculous meningitis: A retrospective cohort study in the western cape of South Africa. Pediatrics 2009;123:e1-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Karstaedt AS, Valtchanova S, Barriere R, Crewe-Brown HH. Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults. QJM 1998;91:743-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Katrak SM, Shembalkar PK, Rijwe SR, Bhandarkar LD. The clinical, radiological and pathological profile of tuberculous meningitis to patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Neurol Sci 2000;181:118-26.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Whiteman M, Espinoza L, Post MJ, Bell MD, Falcone S. Central nervous system tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients: Clinical and radiographic findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1995;16:1319-27.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Kumar R, Singh SN, Kohli N. A diagnostic rule for tuberculous meningitis. Arch Dis Child 1999;81:221-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
18.Thwaites GE, Chau TT, Stepniewska K, Phu NH, Chuong LV, Sinh DX, et al. Diagnosis of adult tuberculous meningitis by use of clinical and laboratory features. Lancet 2002;360:1287-92.  Back to cited text no. 18
19.Sinner SW, Tunkel AR. Approach to the diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep 2002;2:324-31.  Back to cited text no. 19
20.Thwaites GE, Chau TT, Farrar JJ. Improving the bacteriological diagnosis of tuberculosis meningitis. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:378-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
21.Pai M, Flores LL, Pai N, Hubbard A, Riley LW, Colford JM. Diagnostic accuracy of neucleic acid amplification tests for tuberculous meningitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3:633-43.  Back to cited text no. 21
22.Bernaerts A, Vanhoenacker FM, Parizel PM, Van Goethem JW, Van Altena R, Laridon A, et al. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: Overview of neuroradiological findings. Eur Radiol 2003;13:1876-90.  Back to cited text no. 22
23.Kumar R, Kohli N, Thavani H, Kumar A, Sharma B. Value of CT scan in the diagnosis of meningitis. Indian Pediatr 1996;33:465-8.  Back to cited text no. 23
24.Andronikou S, Smith B, Hatherhill M, Douis H, Wilmshurst J. Definitive neuroradiological diagnostic feature of tuberculous meningitis in children. Pediatr Radiol 2004;34:876-85.  Back to cited text no. 24
25.Offenbacher H, Fazekas F, Schmidt R, Kleinert R, Payer F, Kleinert G, et al. MRI in tuberculous meningoencephalitis: Report of four cases and review of the neurimaging literature. J Neurol 1991;238:340-4.  Back to cited text no. 25
26.Ranjan P, Kalita J, Misra UK. Serial study of clinical and CT changes in tuberculous meningitis. Neuroradiology 2003;45:277-82.  Back to cited text no. 26
27.Thwaites GE, Macmullen-Price J, Tran TH, Pham PM, Nguyen TD, Simmons CP, et al. Serial MRI to determine the effect of dexamethasone on the cerebral pathology of tuberculous meningitis: An observational study. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:230-6.  Back to cited text no. 27
28.Srikanth SG, Taly AB, Nagarajan K, Jayakumar PN, Patil S. Clinicoradiological features of tuberculous meningitis in patients over 50 years of age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:536-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
29.Morgado C, Ruivo N. Imaging meningo-encephalic tuberculosis. Eur J Radiol 2005;55:188-92.  Back to cited text no. 29
30.van Loenhout-Rooyackers JH, Keyser A, Laheij RJ, Verbeek AL, van der Meer JW. Tuberculous meningitis: Is a 6-month treatment regimen sufficient? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2001;5:128-35.  Back to cited text no. 30
31.World Health Organization. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): 2010 global report on surveillance and response, 2010.  Back to cited text no. 31
32.Zager EM, McNerney R. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. BMC Infect Dis 2008;8:10.  Back to cited text no. 32
33.Patel VB, Padayatchi N, Bhigjee AI, Allen J, Bhagwan B, Moodley AA, et al. Multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:851-6.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.Daikos GL, Cleary T, Rodriguez A, Fischl MA. Multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis in patients with AIDS. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2003;7:394-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
35.Thwaites GE, Lan NT, Dung NH, Quy HT, Oanh DT, Thoa NT, et al. Effect of antituberculosis drug resistance on response to treatment and outcome in adults with tuberculous meningitis. J Infect Dis 2005;192:79-88.  Back to cited text no. 35
36.Matteelli A, Migliori GB, Cirillo D, Centis R, Girard E, Raviglion M. Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Epidemiology and control. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2007;5:857-71.  Back to cited text no. 36
37.Andries K, Verhasselt P, Guillemont J, Gφhlmann HW, Neefs JM, Winkler H, et al. A diarylquinoline drug active on the ATP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Science 2005;307:223-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
38.Koul A, Dendouga N, Vergauwen K, Molenberghs B, Vranckx L, Willebrords R, et al. Diarylquinolines target subunit c of mycobacterial ATP synthase. Nat Chem Biol 2007;3:323-4.   Back to cited text no. 38
39.Huitric E, Verhasselt P, Andries K, Hoffner SE. In vitro antimycobacterial spectrum of a diarylquinoline ATP synthase inhibitor. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007;51:4202-4.  Back to cited text no. 39
40.Koul A, Vranckx L, Dendouga N, Balemans W, Van den Wyngaert I, Vergauwen K, et al. Diarylquinolines are bactericidal for dormant mycobacteria as a result of disturbed ATP homeostasis. J Biol Chem 2008;283:273-80.  Back to cited text no. 40
41.Diacon AH, Pym A, Grobusch M, Patientia R, Rustomjee R, Page-Shipp L, et al. The diarylquinoline TMC207 for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2397-405.  Back to cited text no. 41
42.Prasad K, Singh MB. Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;1:CD002244.  Back to cited text no. 42
43.Thwaites GE, Nguyen DB, Nguyen HD, Hoang TQ, Do TT, Nguyen TC, et al. Dexamethasone for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adolescents and adults. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1741-51.  Back to cited text no. 43
44.Greisman LA, Mackowiak PA. Fever: Beneficial and detrimental effects of antipyretic. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2002;15:241-5.  Back to cited text no. 44
45.Axelrod YK, Diringer MN. Temperature management in acute neurologic disorders. Crit Care Clin 2007;22:767-85  Back to cited text no. 45
46.Wass CT, Lanier WL, Hofer RE, Scheithauer BW, Andrews AG. Temperature changes of > or = 1degree C alter functional neurologic outcome and histopathology in canine model of complete cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology 1995;83:325-35.  Back to cited text no. 46
47.Cairns CJ, Andrews PJ. Management of hyperthermia in traumatic brain injury. Curr Opin Crit Care 2002;8:106-60.  Back to cited text no. 47
48.Rossi S, Roncati Zanier E, Mauri I, Columbo A, Stocchetti N. Brain temperature, body core temperature, and intracranial pressure in acute cerebral damage. J Neurol Neurosurg Pscybiatry 2001;71:448-54.  Back to cited text no. 48
49.Bryant RE, Hood AF, Hood CE, Koenig MG. Factors affecting mortality of gram-negative rod bacteremia. Arch Intern Med 1971;127:120-8.  Back to cited text no. 49
50.Christopher R, Gourie-Devi M. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in tuberculous meningitis. J Assoc Phys Ind 1997;45:933-5.  Back to cited text no. 50
51.Singh BS, Patwari AK, Deb M. Serum sodium and osmolal changes in tuberculous meningitis. Indian Pediatr 1994;31:1345-50.  Back to cited text no. 51
52.Narotam PK, Kemp M, Buck R, Gouws E, van Dellen JR, Bhoola KD. Hyponatremic natriuretic syndrome in tuberculous meningitis: The probable role of arterial natriutetic peptide. Neurosurgery 1994;34:982-8.  Back to cited text no. 52
53.Gujjar AR. Sodium dysregulation and infections of central nervous system. Ann Ind Acad Neurol 2003;6:253-8.  Back to cited text no. 53
54.Celik US, Alabaz D, Yildizdas D, Alhan E, Kocabas E, Ulutan S. Cerebral salt wasting in tuberculous meningitis: Treatment with fludrocortisone. Ann Trop Paediatr 2005;25:297-302.  Back to cited text no. 54
55.Ti LK, Kang SC, Cheong KF. Acute hyponatraemia secondary to cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis. Anaesth Intensive Care 1998;26:420-3.  Back to cited text no. 55
56.Ravishankar B, Mangala, Prakash GK, Shetty KJ, Ballal HS. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningitis. J Assoc Physicians India 2006;54:403-4.  Back to cited text no. 56
57.Huang SM, Chen CC, Chiu PC, Cheng MF, Chiu CL, Hsieh KS. Tuberculous meningitis complicated with hydrocephalus and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a three-year-old boy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:884-6.  Back to cited text no. 57
58.Das R, Nagaraj R, Murlidharan J, Singhi S. Hyponatraemia and hypovolemic shock with tuberculous meningitis. Indian J Pediatr 2003;70:995-7.  Back to cited text no. 58
59.Loo KL, Ramachandran R, Abdullah BJ, Chow SK, Goh EM, Yeap SS. Cerebral infarction and cerebral salt wasting syndrome in a patient with tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2003;34:636-40.  Back to cited text no. 59
60.Harrigan MR. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome. Crit Care Clin 2001;17:125-38.  Back to cited text no. 60
61.Kroll M, Juhler M, Lindholm J. Hyponatremia in acute brain disease. J Intern Med 1992;232:291-7.  Back to cited text no. 61
62.Sarkarcan A, Boochini J Jr. Rhe role of fludrocortisone in a child with cerebral salt wasting. Pediatr Nephrol 1998;12:769-71.  Back to cited text no. 62
63.Camous L, Valin N, Zaragoza JL, Caumes E, Deray G, Izzedine H. Hyponatremic syndrome in a patient with tuberculosis - always the adrenals? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:393-5.  Back to cited text no. 63
64.Murthy JM, Jayalaxmi SS, Kanikannan MA. Convulsive status epilepticus: Clinical profile in a developing country. Epilepsia 2007;48:2217-23.  Back to cited text no. 64
65.Narayanan JT, Murthy JM. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a neurological intensive care unit: Profile in a developing country. Epilepsia 2007;48:900-6.  Back to cited text no. 65
66.Narayanan JT, Murthy JM. New onset acute symptomatic seizures in neurological intensive care unit. Neurol India 2007;55:136-40.  Back to cited text no. 66
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
67.Patel NC, Landan IR, Levin J, Szaflarski J, Wilner AN. The use of levetiracetam in refractory status epilepticus. Seizure 2006;15:137-41.  Back to cited text no. 67
68.Rupprecht S, Franke K, Fitzek S, Witte OW, Hagemann G. Levetiracetam as a treatment option in non-convulsive status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res 2007;73:238-44.  Back to cited text no. 68
69.Rossetti AO, Bromfield EB. Determinants of success in the use of oral levetiracetam in status epilepticus. Epilepsy Behav 2006;8:651-4.  Back to cited text no. 69
70.Murthy JM. Acute symptomatic seizures: Clinical and etiological spectrum in developing countries. In: Murthy JM, Senanayake N, editors. Epilepsy in tropics. Georgetown: Landes Bioscience; 2006. p. 133-43.  Back to cited text no. 70
71.Patsalos PN, Perucca E. Clinically important drug interactions in epilepsy: Interactions between antiepileptic drugs and other drugs. Lancet Neruol 2003;2:473-81.  Back to cited text no. 71
72.Miller RR, Porter J, Greebblatt DJ. Clinical importance of the interaction of phenytoin and isoniazid: A report from the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. Chest 1979;75:353-8.  Back to cited text no. 72
73.Dastur DK, Manghani DK, Udani PM. Pathology and pathogenetic mechanisms in neurotuberculosis. Radiol Clin North Am 1995;33:733-52.  Back to cited text no. 73
74.Shankar SK, Santosh V, Mahadevan A, Yasha TC, Satishchandra P. Pahtology of cerebral vasculature in neurotuberculosis-some observations. In: Mehata VS, Misra UK, editors. Progress in Neurosciences. New Delhi: Neurological Society of India; 2003.p.134-41.  Back to cited text no. 74
75.Mathew NT, Abraham J, Chandy J. Cerebral angiographic features in tuberculous meningitis. Neurology 1970;20:1015-23.  Back to cited text no. 75
76.Schoeman JF, Elshof JW, Laubscher JA, Janse van Rensburg A, Donald PR. The effect of adjuvant steroid treatment on serial cerebrospinal fluid changes in tuberculous meningitis. Ann Trop Paediatr 2000;21:299-305.  Back to cited text no. 76
77.van der Flier M, Hoppenreijs S, van Rensburg AJ, Ruyken M, Kolk AH, Springer P, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor and blood-brain barrier distruption in tuberculous meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004;23:608-13.  Back to cited text no. 77
78.Gujjar AR, Srikanth SG, Umamaheshwara Rao GS. HHH regime for arteritis secondary to TB meningitis: A prospective randomized study. Neurocrit Care 2009;10:313-7.  Back to cited text no. 78
79.Singh D, Kumar S. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt in post tubercular hydrocephalus. Indian Pediatr 1996;33:854-5.  Back to cited text no. 79
80.Mathew JM, Rajshekhar V, Chandy MJ. Shunt surgery for poor grade patients with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus: Effect of response to external ventricular drainage and other factors on long-term outcome. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;65:115-8.  Back to cited text no. 80
81.Agrawal D, Gupta A, Mehta VS. Role of shunt surgery in pediatric tubercular meningitis with hydrocephalus. Indian Pediatrics 2005;42:245-50.  Back to cited text no. 81
82.Sil K, Chatterjee S. Shunting in tuberculous meningitis: A neurosurgeon's nightmare. Childs Nerv Syst 2008;24:1029-32.   Back to cited text no. 82
83.Adrogue HJ, Madias NE. Hyponatremia. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1681-9.  Back to cited text no. 83
84.Flores-Cordero JM, Amaya-Villar R, Rincσn-Ferrari MD, Leal-Noval SR, Garnacho-Montero J, Llanos-Rodrνguez AC, et al. Acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults admitted to the intensive care unit: Clinical manifestations, management and prognostic factors. Intensive Care Med 2003;29:1967-73.  Back to cited text no. 84
85.Gliemroth J, Bahlmann L, Klaus S, Klφhn A, Arnold H. Long-time microdialysis in a patient with meningoencephalitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2002;105:27-31.  Back to cited text no. 85
86.Shetty R, Singhi S, Singhi P, Jayashree M. Cerebral perusion pressure-targeted approach in children with central nervous system infections and raised intracranial pressure: Is it feasible? J Child Neurol 2008;23:192-8.  Back to cited text no. 86
87.Lindvall P, Ahlm C, Ericsson M, Gothefors L, Naredi S, Koskinen LO. Reducing intracranial pressure may increase survival among patients with bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:384-90.  Back to cited text no. 87
88.Himmelseher S. Hypertonic saline solutions for treatment of intracranial hypertension. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2007;20:414-26.  Back to cited text no. 88
89.Schoeman J, Donald P, van Zyl L, Keet M, Wait J. Tuberculous hydrocephalus: Comparison of different treatments with regard to ICP, ventricular size and clinical outcome. Dev Med Child Neurol 1991;33:396-405.  Back to cited text no. 89
90.Lamprecht D, Schoeman J, Donald P, Hartzenberg H. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting in childhood tuberculous meningitis. Br J Neurosurg 2001;15:119-25.  Back to cited text no. 90
91.Kemaloglu S, Ozkan U, Bukte Y, Ceviz A, Ozates M. Timing of shunt surgery in childhood tuberculous meningitis with hydrocephalus. Pediatr Neurosurg 2002;37:194-8.  Back to cited text no. 91
92.Girgis NI, Sultan Y, Farid Z, Mansour MM, Erian MW, Hanna LS, et al. Tuberculosis meningitis, Abbassia Fever Hospital-Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3-Cairo, Egypt from 1976 to 1996. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998;58:28-34.  Back to cited text no. 92

This article has been cited by
1 Seizures and Epilepsy associated with Central Nervous System Tuberculosis
Ana P Ramos, Jorge G Burneo
Seizure. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 A rare rapidly progressive presentation of tuberculous meningitis
Swapnil Gautam, Apurva Agarwal, Mehul Desai
IP Indian Journal of Immunology and Respiratory Medicine. 2023; 7(4): 170
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Evaluation of Gene-Xpert in paediatric tuberculous meningitis cases: A hospital-based study
Sweta Muni, AnandKumar Gupta, Deepak Pankaj, Rakesh Kumar, Shailesh Kumar, Namrata Kumari
Advances in Human Biology. 2022; 0(0): 0
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Molecular Methods and Culture in Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis in Children
Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 2021; : 140
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Post-Infective Hydrocephalus
Kanwaljeet Garg, Deepak Gupta
Neurology India. 2021; 69(8): 320
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Mullen Scales of Early Learning Adaptation for Assessment of Indian Children and Application to Tuberculous Meningitis
Smita Nimkar, Suvarna Joshi, Aarti Kinikar, Chhaya Valvi, D Bella Devaleenal, Kiran Thakur, Manjushree Bendre, Saltanat Khwaja, Mahesh Ithape, Krishna Kattagoni, Mandar Paradkar, Nikhil Gupte, Amita Gupta, Nishi Suryavanshi, Vidya Mave, Kelly E Dooley, Ana Arenivas
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 2021; 67(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 A study to assess the clinico-radiological presentation and outcome predictors in cases of tubercular meningitis
Priya Jadaun, Rajesh Patil, Sharmila Ramteke, Manjusha Goel
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2021; 68(3): 384
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Detection of tuberculous meningitis by various microbiological modalities at a tertiary care hospital in north India
Ilham Iqbal, Anjum Farhana, Danish Zahoor, Humaira Bashir
Indian Journal of Microbiology Research. 2020; 7(3): 273
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 A Study on the Utility of GeneXpert in Cerebrospinal Fluid in the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis
Karthik Sundar, Nayyar Iqbal, Sudhagar Mookkappan, Sheela Devi, Aneesh Basheer
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2020; 7(1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Tuberculous meningitis presenting with nonconvulsive status epilepticus and transient diffusion restriction: A rare case
Yuwa Oka, Hayato Tabu, Sadayuki Matsumoto
Neurology India. 2020; 68(2): 512
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 The prevalence, characteristics and outcome of seizure in tuberculous meningitis
Ammar Taha Abdullah Abdulaziz, Jinmei Li, Dong Zhou
Acta Epileptologica. 2020; 2(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Acute Encephalitis Syndrome: Approach to a Changing Paradigm
Bidisha Banerjee, Muhammed Hafis, Ullas Acharya
Pediatric Infectious Disease. 2020; 1(3): 86
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Tuberculous Meningitis: The Microbiological Laboratory Diagnosis and Its Drug Sensitivity Patterns
Titiek Sulistyowati, Deby Kusumaningrum, Eko Budi Koendhori, Ni Made Mertaniasih
Jurnal Respirasi. 2019; 3(2): 35
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery for tuberculous meningitis: A systematic review
Imran Rizvi,Ravindra Kumar Garg,Hardeep Singh Malhotra,Neeraj Kumar,Eesha Sharma,Chhitij Srivastava,Ravi Uniyal
Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2017; 375: 255
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Clinical and radiological spectrum of intracranial tuberculosis: A hospital based study in Northeast India
Baiakmenlang Synmon,Marami Das,Ashok K. Kayal,Munindra Goswami,Jogesh Sarma,Lakshya Basumatary,Suvorit Bhowmick
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2017; 64(2): 109
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Treatment outcome of extrapulmonary tuberculosis under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme
J.J. Cherian,I. Lobo,A. Sukhlecha,U. Chawan,N.A. Kshirsagar,B.L. Nair,L. Sawardekar
Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 2017; 64(2): 104
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Spinal Intramedullary Tubercular Abscess
Jitendra Singh, Yogesh Agrawal, Ruchi Agrawal, Bhawani S Sharma
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences and Technology. 2017; 2(2): 102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Tooth-supported Overdenture using Castable Ball and Socket Attachments
Pragati Kaurani, Narendra Padiyar, Sudhir Meena, Ajay Gupta, Hemant K Sharma, Devendra P Singh
Journal of Mahatma Gandhi University of Medical Sciences and Technology. 2017; 2(2): 106
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Correlation of clinical, laboratory and drug susceptibility profiles in 176 patients with culture positive TBM in a tertiary neurocare centre
Kavitha Kumar,Prashant Giribhattanavar,Nagarathna Chandrashekar,Shripad Patil
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 2016; 86(4): 372
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Hiv/aids and tuberculous meningitis: a five year retrospective autopsy study at the korle-bu teaching hospital accra Ghana
Edmund Muonir Der,Johnbosco B Damnyag,Edwin K Wiredu,Richard K Gyasi,Jehoram T Anim
Pathology Discovery. 2014; 2(1): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study
Stalin Viswanathan,Vivekanandan Muthu,Nayyar Iqbal,Bhavith Remalayam,Tarun George,Friedemann Paul
PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(6): e66595
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Emergencies related to HIV infection and treatment (part 1)
Amit Chandra,Jacqueline Firth,Abid Sheikh,Premal Patel
African Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2013; 3(3): 142
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India - A Retrospective Study
Viswanathan, S. and Muthu, V. and Iqbal, N. and Remalayam, B. and George, T.
PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(6)
24 Tuberculosis: From an incurable scourge to a curable disease - Journey over a millennium
Sharma, S.K. and Mohan, A.
Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2013; 137(3): 455-493
25 Mycobacterial Dormancy Regulon Protein Rv2623 as a Novel Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Latent and Active Tuberculous Meningitis
Ruchika K. Jain,Amit R. Nayak,Aliabbas A. Husain,Milind S. Panchbhai,Nitin Chandak,Hemant J. Purohit,Girdhar M. Taori,Hatim F. Daginawala,Rajpal S. Kashyap
Disease Markers. 2013; 35: 311
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Tuberculous meningitis in adults: a review of a decade of developments focusing on prognostic factors for outcome
Flavia Brancusi,Jeremy Farrar,Dorothee Heemskerk
Future Microbiology. 2012; 7(9): 1101
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Fulminant tuberculous meningitis -autopsy case report-
Shinoyama, M. and Suzuki, M. and Nomura, S.
Neurologia Medico-Chirurgica. 2012; 52(10): 761-764
28 Tuberculoma and meningitis in a young girl: A case report
Ahssan, B. and Afrasiabian, S.
American Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012; 8(2): 70-72
29 Tuberculous meningitis in adults: A review of a decade of developments focusing on prognostic factors for outcome
Brancusi, F. and Farrar, J. and Heemskerk, D.
Future Microbiology. 2012; 7(9): 1101-1116
30 Hydrocephalus Indian scenario A review
Venkataramana, N.K.
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences. 2011; 6(3 sup): 11-22
31 Anaesthetic management of emergency caesarean section in a patient with seizures and likely raised intracranial pressure due to tuberculous meningitis
Baidya, D.K., Trikha, A., Menon, S., Garg, R.
Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 2011; 39(5): 951-953


Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow