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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 62  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 144--148

Primary intraventricular hemorrhage: Clinical features, risk factors, etiology, and yield of diagnostic cerebral angiography

1 Department of Neurology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Radiology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Raghavendra Bakki Sannegowda
Plot No. 256/C, Sector 3, Chitrakoot, Vaishalinagar, Jaipur - 302 021, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.132333

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Background: Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a rare neurological disorder, with bleeding confined to the ventricles only, without recognizable parenchymal or subarachnoid component. Aim: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify clinical features, predisposing risk factors, etiology, radiological features and yield of diagnostic cerebral angiography in identifying the etiological causes. Settings and Design: Records of patients admitted in neurology division were analyzed in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of 27 patients with PIVH evaluated and treated at our institute from August 2010 to April 2013. PIVH was diagnosed as hemorrhage in the ventricles only, detected by computed tomography scan without evidence of intraparenchymal, subarachnoid hemorrhage or intraventricular hemorrhage associated with trauma. CT angiography (CTA) alone was done in 10 patients (37.03%), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 2 patients (7.4%) and both CTA as well as DSA was done in 15 patients (55.5%). Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical and continuous data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: 17 (62.96%) patients were females and 10 (37.03%) were males with ratio of F:M= 1.7:1. Headache was the commonest mode of presentation (85.18%). Hypertension was most common predisposing factor (29.62%) followed by arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) (25.92%), moyamoya disease (MMD) (11.11%), lenticuostriate artery aneurysm (LSA) (11.11%), arterial dissections (7.4%) and dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) (3.7%). Conclusions: PIVH is rare and hypertension is important predisposing factor. Yield of cerebral angiography is high in diagnosing the etiology. AVMs and other rare etiological causes like MMD, LSA aneurysm, arterial dissection, and dAVF should be kept in mind with a high index of suspicion and warrants cerebral angiography in them, as some of the causes are potentially treatable.


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Online since 20th March '04
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