Neurology India
menu-bar5 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus
  Users online: 4796  
 Home | Login 
About Editorial board Articlesmenu-bullet NSI Publicationsmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Videos Etcetera Contact
  Navigate Here 
 Resource Links
  »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
  »  Article in PDF (1,286 KB)
  »  Citation Manager
  »  Access Statistics
  »  Reader Comments
  »  Email Alert *
  »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Materials and Me...
 » Results
 » Discussion
 » Conclusions
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded138    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal


Table of Contents    
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 797-803

Craniovertebral junction evaluation by computed tomography in asymptomatic individuals in the Indian population

Department of Neurosurgery, All Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication15-May-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shashwat Mishra
Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.232288

Rights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

Background: The available literature on the anatomy and imaging of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) focusses on the osteometric indices described for the detection of abnormal relationships between the components of CVJ. However, a knowledge of the normal osteometry of this region in the Indian population is critically important for the operating surgeon as it may influence the surgical technique as well as the choice, size and configurations of the implants. It is also important to determine whether critical differences exist between the osteometric data of Indians and the rest of the world for this part of the anatomy. Accordingly, the present study is an attempt to quantitate the osteometric indices for the anatomically normal CVJ in Indian subjects
Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied the imaging data of 49 consecutive adult patients (31 males, 18 females) who underwent a computed tomographic (CT) angiogram for suspected vascular conditions unrelated to the craniovertebral junction. Several parameters related to the atlanto-dental relationship, foramen magnum, atlas and axis vertebrae were recorded, including the dimensions of the commonly instrumented bony regions and also the indices related to the CVJ bony relationships. The data was also compared between the two genders, statistically through the Student's t-test using the statistical program “R”.
Results: No patient had an atlanto dens interval >2.5 mm. The mean distance of the odontoid tip from the McRae line in this series was 5.11 mm and no patient had the odontoid tip above the McRae line. Female subjects had significantly smaller diameters of C1 lateral masses and odontoid screw trajectory length when compared to males. Additionally, in the Indian population, the length range of odontoid screw trajectory and the thickness of the narrowest part of the C2 pedicles was smaller with respect to similar data from other geographical regions. However, the rest of the parameters resembled the data from studies conducted on populations with other ethnicities.
Conclusion: The osteometric parameters of the CVJ in the Indian population are largely similar to those described globally. However, there are some important differences too which can influence the design of surgical implants suited to the Indian population.

Keywords: Computed tomographic scan, craniovertebral junction, Indian, normal parameters, osteometry
Key Message: Significant differences exist between the Indian and the Western population with respect to several parameters in CVJ osteometry, which are relevant to surgical procedures commonly performed upon this region of the spine.

How to cite this article:
Dash C, Singla R, Agarwal M, Kumar A, Kumar H, Mishra S, Sharma BS. Craniovertebral junction evaluation by computed tomography in asymptomatic individuals in the Indian population. Neurol India 2018;66:797-803

How to cite this URL:
Dash C, Singla R, Agarwal M, Kumar A, Kumar H, Mishra S, Sharma BS. Craniovertebral junction evaluation by computed tomography in asymptomatic individuals in the Indian population. Neurol India [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 Jul 3];66:797-803. Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2018/66/3/797/232288

Most of the literature on craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies focuses on correction of an established deformity. Normal CVJ parameters are still poorly understood and historically have been defined based on measurements made on plain X-ray films. There is paucity of data defining the metrics of normal CVJ osteology in the Indian population. Moreover, X-ray measurements have become obsolete in the computed tomography (CT) era, which enables much more accurate and objective determination of the osteometric data. Most studies in which CVJ parameters have been recorded include patients with known congenital bony CVJ anomalies or patients with  Chiari malformation More Details.[1],[2],[3],[4] The importance of knowing the normal CVJ parameters cannot be overstated when rapid advancements are being made in CVJ instrumentation and correction of CVJ deformities.

Accordingly, the present study is an attempt to quantitate the normal osteometric indices for anatomically normal CVJ in an Indian population.

 » Materials and Methods Top

This retrospective observational study included 49 consecutive adult patients who underwent a CT angiogram for a suspected vascular condition unrelated to the CVJ. Patients with a previously undiscovered asymptomatic CVJ anomaly, pathologic involvement of the CVJ, or an incomplete study of the region were excluded.

Computed tomography measurements

All the measurements were performed independently by two observers (CD, SM), and the recordings were made upon agreement with a maximum permissible interobserver difference of 1 mm for a particular measurement. In the case of dispute between observers, the opinion of an expert radiologist was considered final. The studies were performed on a 64-row multidetector CT scanner (MDCT), and images were reconstructed into 0.5-mm slice thickness. All the scans were analyzed on the 'bone window' setting. All the measurements were made using the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The following measurements were made:

  1. The atlantodens interval (ADI) was measured as the distance between the anterior border of odontoid and the posterior margin of the anterior arch of C1 in a midline sagittal CT image [Figure 1]a
  2. The anterior-posterior (AP) diameter of foramen magnum (FM) was measured as the distance between the anterior and posterior margin of FM in a midline sagittal CT image [Figure 1]b
  3. The height of C1 lateral mass was measured on sagittal images as the distance between the midpoint of the superior articular process to the midpoint of the inferior articular process on both right and left sides [Figure 1]c
  4. The AP dimension/C1 lateral mass length was measured on the sagittal CT image as the distance from the posterior aspect of C1 lateral mass where the C1 posterior arch met with the lateral mass, to the anterior aspect of the C1 lateral mass in the same plane [Figure 1]d
  5. The occipital condyle height was measured on sagittal CT images as the distance between the midpoint of its superior surface and the midpoint of the inferior articular process [Figure 1]e
  6. The clivus length (CL) was measured as the distance between the top of the dorsum sella to the basion in midline sagittal CT image [Figure 1]f. The basisphenoid length was measured as the distance from the synchondrosis to the tip of clivus [Figure 1]g
  7. The clivus canal angle was measured as the angle formed by the intersection of the lines drawn from the inferior one-third of the clivus and an extension of the line connecting the inferodorsal point of the axis to the superodorsal point of the dens [Figure 1]h
  8. The basal angle was measured as the angle formed by the intersection of the line between the nasion to the dorsum sellae, and a line from the dorsum sellae to the basion [Figure 1]i
  9. The amount of ventral cervicomedullary encroachment by the odontoid was assessed by the measurement proposed by Grabb–Oakeshich, which was done in a midline sagittal CT image and was measured as the distance to a perpendicular line traced from the most posterior region of the dura mater covering the dens, to the line that goes from the inferior surface of the basion to the posterior inferior aspect of the C2 vertebral body (pB-C2 line) [Figure 2]a
  10. The distance from the tip of the odontoid to the McRae line was determined as follows. A line was drawn from the basion to the tip of the opisthion (the McRae line) on a sagittal CT image. A perpendicular line was then traced through the tip of the odontoid, and the length of this line was recorded. Whether or not, the odontoid tip was above or below the McRae line [Figure 2]b was also recorded
  11. The trajectory for the odontoid screw was drawn from a point along the anterior–inferior aspect of the C2 body to the posterior cortex of odontoid tip, and thereby, the presumptive odontoid screw length was measured along the expected trajectory of odontoid screw [Figure 2]c. Odontoid retroflexion was measured as the angle formed by lines drawn along the synchondrosis of C2 meeting with the line drawn from the odontoid tip [Figure 2]d. Odontoid retroversion was the angle formed between the line drawn from the base of C2 and its intersection with the line drawn from the odontoid tip [Figure 2]e
  12. C2 pedicle width was measured as the mediolateral dimension of the pedicle isthmus, perpendicular to the pedicle axis on both sides [Figure 2]f. C2 pedicle transverse angle (PTA) was measured as the angle between the pedicle axis and the midline of the vertebral body [Figure 3]a
  13. The thickness of the external occipital protuberance (EOP; the distance between the inner and outer surfaces of the EOP) was measured on a midline sagittal CT image, as was the thickness of the occipital crest 1 cm below the EOP [Figure 3]b.
Figure 1: (a) Atlantodens interval. (b) AP diameter of foramen magnum. (c)  Atlas More Details lateral mass height measurement. (d) C1 lateral mass AP dimension. (e) occipital condyle height. (f) Clivus length. (g) Basisphenoid length. (h) Clivus canal angle. (i) basal angle

Click here to view
Figure 2: (a) pB-C2 line. (b) Distance of odontoid tip from McRae's line. (c) Trajectory of odontoid screw. (d) Odontoid retrofelxion angle. (e) Odontoid retroversion angle. (f) C2 pedicle width

Click here to view
Figure 3: (a) C2 pedicle transverse angle (PTA). (b) The thickness of the external occipital protuberance

Click here to view

The data was analyzed using the statistical programming language R. The means were compared using the unpaired Student's t-test.

 » Results Top

The CT measurement of CVJ morphometry was made in 49 asymptomatic Indian individuals. Out of the total study population, 31 were male subjects whereas 18 were female subjects with a mean age of 50.9 years (standard deviation [SD] 14.91; minimum age 18 years; maximum age 81 years). All the patients underwent CT angiography for a cerebrovascular condition. All the measurements are summarized in [Table 1]. In comparison between males and female subjects in this series, statistically significant difference was found only in the C1 lateral mass anterior-posterior diameter, odontoid length, and odontoid screw trajectory length, which were smaller in female subjects when compared to the male ones. [Table 2] compares the measurements between male and female subjects.
Table 1: Craniovertebral junction morphometry

Click here to view
Table 2: Comparison of craniovertebral junction osteometry in between the male and female subjects (measurements in mm or in degrees)

Click here to view

 » Discussion Top

In our study, we evaluated the CT parameters of CVJ in 49 patients with imaging indications unrelated to the CVJ pathology. Most of the existing literature focuses on patients with existing congenital anomaly and deformity correction. The normal range depicted in [Table 1] is important not only in planning deformity correction but also in designing spinal implants of appropriate dimensions in an Indian population.

Rojas et al.,[5] assessed normal anatomic relationships of craniocervical articulations on MDCT among 200 patients who underwent imaging as per the trauma protocol and did not demonstrate any soft tissue or bony abnormality on imaging. They assessed only 6 parameters – basion-axial interval (BAI), basion-dens interval (BDI), powers ratio, ADI, and atlanto-occipital interval (AOI) in each patient. They compared these values with previously accepted data on plain radiographs after appropriate statistical analysis. They reported that 95% of their patients had an ADI less than 2 mm, which was smaller than the previously accepted value of 3 mm based on studies reported in 1960s using plain radiographs. We found that only 3 patients had an ADI >2 mm (6.1% of the study group) and no patient had an ADI >2.5 mm. The findings are similar to those of Batista et al.,[6] who did not find any patient with an ADI >2 mm. Based on our findings and those of the studies quoted above, we can infer that 2 mm should be considered as the upper limit of normal ADI for adult patients on CT scan sagittal images.

The mean basal angle in our observations was 121.65° (SD, 5.12°; range, 109.7–133.7°). This agrees well with the findings of other series. Koenigsberg et al.,[7] using the same anatomical parameters (from the top of the dorsum sellae to the nasion and the basion) of 200 normal adults using MRI, obtained a mean value of 129 ± 6°. Botelho and Ferreira [8] in their series of 33 asymptomatic patients reported a range of 107–132°(mean 119° ± 7.1°) as the normal basal angle. They suggested that a diagnosis of platybasia should be made when the basal angle is greater than 133°. Smoker et al.,[9] measured BA as the angle formed by the intersection of the nasion–tuberculum sellae line and the tuberculum sellae–basion line and suggested that BA should always be less than 140°. Understandably, when the BA is measured with respect to the centre of the sella instead of the tip of dorsum sella, a higher value is observed.

For the clivus–canal angle (CCA), a range of 150° to 180° is generally accepted as normal on plain radiographs. Ventral spinal cord compression has been found with measurements less than 150° on plain radiographs. Various studies based on MR and CT scan imaging have showed a broad range of values with mean CCA values being lower than 150° in these studies. The mean CCA in our study was 150.69° (SD, 12.05°; range, 118.20–173.70°). This is in concordance with the studies by Botelho and Ferreira [8] (148° ±9.8°; range, 129–179°) and Batista et al.,[6] (153.6° ±7.6°; range, 132.3–173.9°).

The clivus length was measured as the distance from the top of the dorsum sellae to the basion. The mean length obtained in our study was 43.05 mm (SD, 3.33; range, 34.84–51.18). This is almost similar to the study by Heiss et al.,[10] who reported a mean clivus length of 43.2 mm and 44.7 mm, respectively. In the studies by Dufton et al.,[11] and Batista et al.,[6] comparing the clival length in patients with Chiari malformation (CM) and normal individuals, it was found that patients with CM had a shorter clivus length (4.02 ± 0.45 cm) than in the controls (4.23 ± 0.42 cm, P= 0.009).

The thickness of EOP is important during the planning of occipito-cervical instrumentation. The mean EOP thickness was measured to be 12.15 mm (6.8–25.52 mm). Morita et al., in their study involving 105 individuals, found that the maximum thickness of the occipital bone was consistently found at the level of the EOP. Areas with thickness >8 mm were more frequent at the EOP and up to 2 cm in all directions, as well as up to 1 cm in all directions at a height of 1 cm inferiorly, and up to 3 cm from the EOP inferiorly. Males had a thicker occipital bone around the EOP compared to females. These findings suggest that implant sizes for anchoring the occipital bone should be individualized based on preoperative CT studies.

The occipital condyle connects the cranium with the vertebral column. The average occipital condyle height in the study by Saralaya et al.,[12] was 10.2 mm. They measured the height of 140 occipital condyles from 70 dry skulls. The mean occipital condyle height on the right and left sides in the present study was 10.07 and 10.16 mm, respectively, which is in close agreement with their findings. This is similar to the findings in the CT morphometric study by Batista et al.,[6] (height of 10.48 mm for the right condyle and 10.74 mm for the left condyle). Naderi et al.,[13] found the occipital condyle height of 9.2 mm, length of 23.4 mm, and width of 10.6 mm. The anatomical knowledge of occipital condyle may help in planning occipital condyle screw insertion for transcondylar occipito-cervical fixation,[14] as well as for planning lateral approach to the skull base, such as the transcondylar approach.

The mean distance of the odontoid tip from the McRae line in this series was 5.11 mm and no patient had the odontoid tip above the McRae line. Cronin et al.,[15] in their study regarding the evaluation of McRae skull base line, found the mean distance of the odontoid tip to McRae line to be of 5 mm. Our observations are in agreement with the existing literature that in normal individuals, the odontoid tip should be inferior to this line by about 5 mm.[16]

The mean AP length of C1 lateral mass was 17.22 mm on the right side and 17.09 mm on the left side. The mean height of the C1 lateral mass was 12.52 mm and 12.50 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Christensen et al.,[17] in their anatomic surface osteometric analysis of cadaveric cervical spine, stated that the minimum dimensions found from 240 C1 lateral masses were 13.15 mm in anterior-posterior, 4.22 mm in medial-lateral, and 4.73 mm in cephalocaudal directions. Goel and Laheri [18] followed by Harms and Melcher [19] described the posterior C1-C2 fixation technique for atlantoaxial stabilization, and since then this technique has been extensively used worldwide for atlantoaxial stabilization for various indications. Knowing the dimension of C1 would help in refining the surgical strategy in such patients.

The pB-C2 measurement had a mean length of 8.25 mm, and no patient had a pB-C2 length less than 5 mm. The maximum pB-C2 measurement was 11.8 mm. This is similar to the findings of a study of 125 patients by Khaleel et al.,[20] who measured the pB-C2 line ranging from 0 to 11.2 mm (mean, 6.5 ± 2.1 mm) in length. Adopting a 9 mm [21] cut-off for predicting ventral brainstem compression seems to be inappropriate in the light of these discordant findings. The mean odontoid retroflexion angulation was 80.38° in our measurements, whereas the odontoid retroversion had an average angulation of 87.41°. Khaleel et al., found that the odontoid retroflexion ranged from 70 to 89°, and the odontoid retroversion angle ranged from 57° to 87° (mean, 71.9° ±5.3°). The range and mean of the odontoid height were 17–27 mm and 22 ± 1.8 mm, respectively. The mean pB-C2 line was 6.5 ± 2.1 mm with a range of 0–11.2 mm. The authors concluded that the odontoid process in adults was longer, more posteriorly inclined, and had a greater pB-C2 measurement when compared to the pediatric population data available in the literature. The posterior odontoid process inclination has been associated with Chiari I malformation (CM-I) in the pediatric population. Besachio et al.,[22] found a significant difference between adults with CM-I and 150 sex-matched controls, in the mean clivus–canal angle and the mean pB-C2 line. Goel [3] in his study of 65 patients with CM who were treated by atlantoaxial fixation postulated that the pathogenesis of CM with or without basilar invagination or syringomyelia was primarily related to the instability in the atlantoaxial region. These parameters are especially important in treating CM patients with CVJ anomalies.

The mean dens length was 21.4 mm; and, when the length of the body was measured along with the dens, the mean length was 32.42 mm. The mean length of the expected odontoid screw trajectory was 35.76 mm. Korres et al.,[23] in their study involving 115 patients, found that the mean distance from the tip of the odontoid to its base was 17.25 and 17.28 mm in female and male subjects, respectively; whereas the mean distance from the tip of the dens to the anterior-inferior corner of the body of axis was 39.2 mm. Interestingly, male subjects had a longer odontoid length and odontoid screw trajectory compared to the female ones. The mean odontoid screw trajectory was shorter in Indian studies compared with those reported from the west. Women had a significantly shorter trajectory length than males, which is similar to the observations made in a study on Western subjects [24] and in the Indian population.[25] Consequently, odontoid screws for implantation in Indian patients must be fabricated with the length ranges customized for Indian population. The screws designed on the basis of Western data [26] may be excessively long and may not achieve the lag effect essential for osteosynthesis along the fracture line of type II odontoid fractures.

The mean C2 pedicle thickness was 4.33 mm on the right side and 4.12 mm on the left side. The C2 pedicle transverse angle was 44.43° on the right side and 41.71 mm on the left side. The mean estimated C2 pedicle screw length was 24.59 mm on the right side and 24.83 mm on the left side. Ould-Slimane et al.,[27] analyzed the morphometric properties of 200 C2 pedicles. They found the average length to be 26.18 mm and the average diameter as 5.18 mm. The average pedicle transverse angle of 36.6° was demonstrated. Bhatnagar et al.,[28] in their study of 50 patients, found the mean pedicle length and width being 15.5 ± 3.5 and 4.7 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. Thus, the C2 mean pedicle diameter and its length in Indian patients are slightly lesser when compared to their assessment in the West; this fact should be kept in mind during C2 pedicle cannulation. Important differences between studies from other geographical regions and our observations have been summarized in [Table 3].
Table 3: Comparison between data from previous studies from different geographical regions and our observations

Click here to view


The study population comprised only adult patients over the age of 18 years; hence, pediatric and adolescent age groups are not represented, and the developmental aspects of normal CVJ morphometry have not been captured.

The study population may be more representative of the north Indian population because of the geographical location of the tertiary hospital where this study was conducted. However, because significant racial differences do not exist among Indians, we expect the observations of this study to be translatable to other regions of the country.

As this was a retrospective, non-funded study based on the available data, the sample size was limited. Hence, the CVJ parameters could not be meaningfully compared among the different age groups.

 » Conclusions Top

Due to lack of CT-based osteometric studies on the CVJ in the Indian population, clinicians have depended upon descriptions offered by studies performed among Western populations. However, as our study highlighted, significant differences do exist between Indian and western population with respect to several parameters in CVJ osteometry, which are relevant to surgical procedures commonly performed upon this region of the spine. Recognizing these differences may augment our understanding of the CVJ and lead to improved design of spinal implants suited to the Indian population.[29]

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 » References Top

Chandra PS, Kumar A, Chauhan A, Ansari A, Mishra NK, Sharma BS. Distraction, compression, and extension reduction of basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation: A novel pilot technique. Neurosurgery 2013;72:1040-53.  Back to cited text no. 1
Goel A, Shah A. Atlantoaxial joint distraction as a treatment for basilar invagination: A report of an experience with 11 cases. Neurol India 2008;56:144-50.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Goel A. Is atlantoaxial instability the cause of Chiari malformation? Outcome analysis of 65 patients treated by atlantoaxial fixation. J Neurosurg Spine 2015;22:116-27.  Back to cited text no. 3
Goel A. Treatment of basilar invagination by atlantoaxial joint distraction and direct lateral mass fixation. J Neurosurg Spine 2004;1:281-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
Rojas CA, Bertozzi JC, Martinez CR, Whitlow J. Reassessment of the craniocervical junction: Normal values on CT. Am J Neuroradiol 2007;28:1819-23.  Back to cited text no. 5
Batista UC, Joaquim AF, Fernandes YB, Mathias RN, Ghizoni E, Tedeschi H. Computed tomography evaluation of the normal craniocervical junction craniometry in 100 asymptomatic patients. Neurosurg Focus 2015;38:E5.  Back to cited text no. 6
Koenigsberg RA, Vakil N, Hong TA, Htaik T, Faerber E, Maiorano T, et al. Evaluation of platybasia with MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2005;26:89-92.  Back to cited text no. 7
Botelho RV, Ferreira ED. Angular craniometry in craniocervical junction malformation. Neurosurg Rev 2013;36:603-10.  Back to cited text no. 8
Smoker WR. Craniovertebral junction: Normal anatomy, craniometry, and congenital anomalies. Radiographics 1994;14:255-77.  Back to cited text no. 9
Heiss JD, Suffredini G, Bakhtian KD, Sarntinoranont M, Oldfield EH. Normalization of hindbrain morphology after decompression of Chiari malformation Type I. J Neurosurg 2012;117:942-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
Dufton JA, Habeeb SY, Heran MKS, Mikulis DJ, Islam O. Posterior fossa measurements in patients with and without Chiari I malformation. Can J Neurol Sci 2011;38:452-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
Saralaya VV, Murlimanju BV, Vaderav R, Tonse M, Prameela MD, Jiji PJ. Occipital condyle morphometry and incidence of condylus tertius: Phylogenetic and clinical significance. Clin Ter 2012;163:479-82.  Back to cited text no. 12
Naderi S, Korman E, Citak G, Güvençer M, Arman C, Senoǧlu M, et al. Morphometric analysis of human occipital condyle. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2005;107:191-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
Lee JO, Buchowski JM, Lee KM, Park KW, Chang BS, Lee CK, et al. Optimal trajectory for the occipital condylar screw. Spine 2012;37:385-92.  Back to cited text no. 14
Cronin CG, Lohan DG, Mhuircheartigh JN, Meehan CP, Murphy J, Roche C. CT evaluation of Chamberlain's, McGregor's, and McRae's skull-base lines. Clin Radiol 2009;64:64-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
Mcrae DL, Barnum AS. Occipitalization of the atlas. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 1953;70:23-46.  Back to cited text no. 16
Christensen DM, Eastlack RK, Lynch JJ, Yaszemski MJ, Currier BL. C1 anatomy and dimensions relative to lateral mass screw placement. Spine 2007;32:844-8.  Back to cited text no. 17
Goel A, Desai KI, Muzumdar DP. Atlantoaxial fixation using plate and screw method: A report of 160 treated patients. Neurosurgery 2002;51:1351-6.  Back to cited text no. 18
Harms J, Melcher RP. Posterior C1-C2 fusion with polyaxial screw and rod fixation. Spine 2001;26:2467-71.  Back to cited text no. 19
Khaleel ZL, Besachio DA, Bisson EF, Shah LM. Estimation of odontoid process posterior inclination, odontoid height, and pB-C2 line in the adult population. J Neurosurg Spine 2014;20:172-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
Grabb PA, Mapstone TB, Oakes WJ. Ventral brain stem compression in pediatric and young adult patients with Chiari I malformations. Neurosurgery 1999;44:520-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
Besachio DA, Khaleel Z, Shah LM. Odontoid process inclination in normal adults and in an adult population with Chiari malformation Type I. J Neurosurg Spine 2015;23:701-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
Korres DS, Lazaretos J, Papailiou J, Kyriakopoulos E, Chytas D, Efstathopoulos NE, et al. Morphometric analysis of the odontoid process: Using computed tomography-in the Greek population. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol Orthopeédie Traumatol 2016;26:119-25.  Back to cited text no. 23
Daher MT, Daher S, Nogueira-Barbosa MH, Defino HL. Computed tomographic evaluation of odontoid process: Implications for anterior screw fixation of odontoid fractures in an adult population. Eur Spine J 2011;20:1908-14.  Back to cited text no. 24
Kulkarni AG, Shah SM, Marwah RA, Hanagandi PB, Talwar IR. CT based evaluation of odontoid morphology in the Indian population. Indian J Orthop 2013;47:250-4.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Implants and instruments for odontoid fixation and C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation according to Apfelbaum 09.06.pdf [Internet]. Available from: http://www.bbraun.no/documents/Products/Implants_and_Instruments_for_Odontoid_Fixation_and_C1.C2_Transarticular_Screw_Fixation_according_to_Apfelbaum_09.06.pdf. [Last accessed on 2017 Feb 19].  Back to cited text no. 26
Ould-Slimane M, Le Pape S, Leroux J, Foulongne E, Damade C, Dujardin F, et al. CT analysis of C2 pedicles morphology and considerations of useful parameters for screwing. Surg Radiol Anat 2014;36:537-42.  Back to cited text no. 27
Bhatnagar R, Yu WD, Bergin PF, Matteini LE, O'Brien JR. The anatomic suitability of the C2 vertebra for intralaminar and pedicular fixation: A computed tomography study. Spine J 2010;10:896-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
Carvalho MF de, Rocha RT, Monteiro JT, Pereira CU, Leite RF, Defino HL. Tomographic study of the atlas concerning screw fixation on lateral mass. Acta Ortopédica Bras 2009;17:136-8.  Back to cited text no. 29


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Vision-based pose estimation of craniocervical region: experimental setup and saw bone-based study
Mohammad Zubair, Sachin Kansal, Sudipto Mukherjee
Robotica. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Development and Validation of Finite Element Analysis Model (FEM) of Craniovertebral Junction
Deepak Gupta, Mohd Zubair, Sanjeev Lalwani, Shiva Gamanagatti, Tara Sankar Roy, Sudipto Mukherjee, Shashank Sharad Kale
Spine. 2020; 45(16): E978
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Anatomical evaluation of the craniovertebral junction on cone-beam computed tomography images
Sefkan Tanrisever, Mustafa Orhan, Ilhan Bahsi, Eda Didem Yalçin
Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. 2020; 42(7): 797
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow