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|LETTERS TO EDITOR
|Year : 2019 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 1120-1121
Baclofen-induced Coma and Respiratory Depression in a Patient with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Chronic Kidney Disease
Thotalampatti Pachiyappan Jeyaselvasenthilkumar, Deiveegan Kunjithapatham, Sekar Chinnasamy, Mohamed Abith Ali
Department of Neurosurgery, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India
|Date of Web Publication||10-Sep-2019|
Prof. Deiveegan Kunjithapatham
Department of Neurosurgery, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Kattankulathur, Kanchipuram - 603 203, Tamil Nadu
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Jeyaselvasenthilkumar TP, Kunjithapatham D, Chinnasamy S, Ali MA. Baclofen-induced Coma and Respiratory Depression in a Patient with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Chronic Kidney Disease. Neurol India 2019;67:1120-1
|How to cite this URL:|
Jeyaselvasenthilkumar TP, Kunjithapatham D, Chinnasamy S, Ali MA. Baclofen-induced Coma and Respiratory Depression in a Patient with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy with Chronic Kidney Disease. Neurol India [serial online] 2019 [cited 2020 Nov 24];67:1120-1. Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2019/67/4/1120/266260
Baclofen is primarily used in spinal cord disorders to limit spasticity. It induces inhibition at the presynaptic motor neuron leading to an anti-spastic response. Oral baclofen toxicity is extremely rare but can affect patients with impaired renal clearance even in very low doses. The symptoms can vary from mild symptoms, such as ataxia or dystonia, to coma and respiratory depression  in patients with severely impaired renal function. Hemodialysis rapidly reverses these side effects.
A 64-year-old man from an endemic area of fluorosis presented with features of Cervical spondylotic Myelopathy He was started on oral baclofen 10 mg twice daily. There was no past history of any renal disease. His other medications were tablet acetaminophen and multivitamins. His investigations revealed that he was suffering from fluorosis with ossified posterior longitudinal ligament with extensive calcification of soft tissues of the neck [Figure 1] and [Figure 2]. Ultrasonogram abdomen suggested features of chronic medical renal disease. Three days after starting baclofen therapy, the patient was found unconscious with Glascow coma scale of 3/15. The patient was shifted to the intensive care unit where he developed severe respiratory depression. The patient was intubated and ventilated and underwent hemodialysis. After Hemodialysis1, the patient regained consciousness but was drowsy and not moving the limbs. After Hemodialysis3, the patient became conscious, obeying and regained preoperative neurological status. The patient was extubated after 4 days and discharged on day 7. The serum baclofen concentration measured was 0.62 μg/ml (0.08–0.40 μg/ml) just prior to hemodialysis. The serum baclofen concentration declined to 0.10 μg/ml after Hemodialysis 2.
|Figure 2: CT scan showing calcification of anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, and paraspinal soft tissue|
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The exact mechanism of baclofen-induced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. Altered mental state is the commonest presentation. Baclofen toxicity usually presents 2–4 days after initiation of therapy but a period of up to 16 weeks has been described. Usually, patients recover well after Hemodialysis in a period ranging from hours to days. Since baclofen is widely used for the control of spasticity as well as in other conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm; it is very much important for all of us to know that baclofen should be avoided in patients with impaired renal function. In an unfortunate situation where the patient develops features of toxicity, the treating physician should be aware that HD promptly reverses the toxicity. Hemodialysis removes baclofen as effectively as normal kidneys. The summary of various cases reported so far in the literature is summarized in [Table 1].
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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Beladi Mousavi SS, Beladi Mousavi M, Motemednia F. Baclofen-induced encephalopathy in patient with end stage renal disease: Two case reports. Indian J Nephrol 2012;22:210-21.
Lauren M, Porter DO, Stephanie S, Merrick MD, Kenneth D. Katz MD. Baclofen toxicity in a patient with hemodialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease. J Emerg Med 2017;54:99-100.
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Brvar M, Vrtovec M, Kovac D, Kozelj G, Pezdir T, Bunc M. Haemodialysis clearance of baclofen. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2007;63:1143-6.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]