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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 573--578

Morphometric Alterations of the Sphenoid Ostium and other Landmarks in Acromegaly: Anatomical Considerations and Implications in Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery

1 Department of Neurological Sciences, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sumit Thakar
Department of Neurological Sciences, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.288996

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Background: The sphenoid ostium (SO) is an important landmark for the endoscopic surgeon. Changes in size and position of the SO and variations in other skull base landmarks in acromegalics have not been adequately evaluated. Aims: The authors evaluated the morphometry and location of the SO and other landmarks in acromegaly and compared these findings with those in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Methods: In this retrospective case–control study, the dimensions and location of the SO and other skull base landmarks were radiologically evaluated in 18 patients with growth hormone (GH)–secreting adenomas. These findings were analyzed in relation to preoperative GH levels and compared with 18 age- and sex-matched controls with NFPAs. Results: The dimensions of the SO were significantly larger in the GH-adenoma group (P < 0.05). The SO was further from the midline (P = 0.04) and closer to the sphenopalatine foramen (SPF) (P = 0.02) in the GH-adenoma group, and this finding correlated with increasing preoperative GH levels. Acromegalics demonstrated larger intracavernous carotid diameters (P = 0.05) and smaller intercarotid distances than the patients with NFPAs (P = 0.02). Conclusion: The SO is larger and located higher up in the sphenoid face and closer to the SPF in patients with GH adenomas. Increasing GH levels in these patients correlate with the upward and lateral displacement of the SO. These patients demonstrate larger intracavernous carotid diameters and smaller intercarotid distances than patients with NFPAs. These morphological alterations are of particular relevance to the pituitary surgeon.


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