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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 630--635

The Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies: A Prospective Observational Study

1 Department of Neurology, King George's Medical University, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pathology, King George's Medical University, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Pathology, Ram Manohar Lohiya Institute of Medical Sciences Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Praveen Kumar Sharma
Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Chowk, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh - 226003
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.289003

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Background: Neurological presentation with isolated multiple cranial nerve palsies is common and its diverse causes include infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory pathologies. The aetiological spectrum may depend upon geographical regions. We undertook this study to explore clinical spectrum and aetiological profile of multiple cranial nerve palsies. Methods: This hospital-based prospective observational study was conducted from August 2015 to August 2017. All the consecutive patients of multiple cranial palsies presenting to the neurology department were included in the studies. Primary objectives were to define anatomical syndromes/cranial nerve combinations and to establish aetiology. Secondary objectives were to study associated factors. The multiple cranial nerve palsy was defined as involvement of two or more non-homologous nerves. Patients of neuromuscular junction disorders, anterior horn cell disorders, myopathies, brain stem syndromes were excluded. All patients underwent structured protocol of clinical evaluation, investigations and few specialized investigations in accordance with clinical suspicion to establish the diagnosis. Results: Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 39.9 ± 14.2 years were included. Commonest cranial nerve involved was the abducens (75.9%) among all nerve combinations. The cavernous sinus syndrome (37%), orbital apex syndrome (22.2%) and jugular foramen syndrome (11.1%) were the most frequent anatomical patterns. Infections (40.7%) were the commonest aetiology followed by neoplastic and idiopathic in four patients. Conclusion: Cavernous sinus syndrome was the commonest anatomical syndrome of multiple cranial nerve palsies and infections were the commonest cause in this study.


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