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|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 1459-1461
Modified Method of Multiple Cranial Burr Holes for Treatment of Total Scalp Avulsion
Harshad Patil1, Sunil Rathore2, Nitin Garg1
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Bansal Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
2 Department of Plastic Surgery, Bansal Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||19-Dec-2020|
Dr. Harshad Patil
Department of Neurosurgery, Bansal Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh – 462016
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Scalp avulsion is a rare but severe injury. It usually happens while using industrial or agriculture machinery. Scalp avulsion results from hair entrapment in a rotating machine. There are various options for treatment of scalp avulsion. Herein, the authors present a case of total scalp avulsion which was treated by multiple trephination technique using neurosurgical burr.
Keywords: Microsurgical replantation, multiple burr holes, total scalp avulsion
Key Messages: Multiple large calvarium burr holes is also an effective method when microsurgical replantation is not possible.
|How to cite this article:|
Patil H, Rathore S, Garg N. Modified Method of Multiple Cranial Burr Holes for Treatment of Total Scalp Avulsion. Neurol India 2020;68:1459-61
Total scalp avulsion is a rare and catastrophic injury. It has serious consequence such as hospitalization, financial loss, devastating disfigurement, and psychological effects on the patient.
It often occurs in females and caused by long hair getting caught in machinery. The treatment of choice for total scalp avulsion is microsurgical replantation. However, scalp coverage becomes a major problem when microsurgical replantation fails or contraindicated.
Herein, the authors present a case of total scalp avulsion which was treated by multiple trephinations of calvarium using neurosurgical large burr.
| » Case Report|| |
A 46-year-old female referred to tertiary care neurosurgical center after complete scalp avulsion. Her long hairs had been caught in an agricultural thresher machine. The patient was admitted almost 24 h after trauma. On admission, the patient was unconscious. A large part of the scalp was missing and periosteum was detached in some parts of the skull [Figure 1].
Preoperative computed tomography head was normal. The patient also had anemia for that blood transfusion was given. In view of long time interval between trauma and surgery and the poor condition of the vascular bed, microsurgical replantation was not possible. So we decided to performed calvarium trephination. Multiple burr holes were made with help of neurosurgical pneumatic drill upto the diploe. During trephination, abundant saline irrigation was given to avoid heat trauma to the bone tissue. Surgical debridement was performed and split-thickness graft was applied over intact periosteum [Figure 2]. Occlusive dressing was done on every alternate day. Within three weeks, granulation tissue emerged through the burr holes and covered the calvarium [Figure 3]. A split-thickness skin graft was harvested from the thigh and covered the defect [Figure 4]. Postoperative period was uneventful. Two weeks later when dressing was removed, it showed complete uptake of graft without any graft necrosis [Figure 5].
|Figure 2: Multiple calvarium trephinations with split thickness graft over intact periosteum|
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|Figure 3: Granulation tissue emerged through the burr holes and covered the calverium|
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| » Discussion|| |
Complete scalp avulsion is a rare, life-threatening injury which generally occurs when long hair is caught in rotating devices, such as agricultural or industrial machines. Sometimes, it occurs after bear maul or dog bite.,
There are various options available for treatment of scalp avulsion. For small or medium defect primary closure, local flap, free flap, skin graft, and tissue expansion can be performed. For near-total or total scalp avulsion, treatment of choice is microsurgical replantation. The first successful scalp replantation was reported by Miller et al. in 1976. With the recent advances in microsurgery, management of scalp avulsion improved considerably by providing immediate, stable coverage with the detached tissue itself., However, replantation is not always possible due to a variety of factors such as severe shearing force causing extensive vessel intimal damage within the avulsed scalp, longer warm ischemia time (more than 30 h), and unfavorable preservation of the avulsed scalp.,
In 1904, Mellish reported the first method of calvarium trephination. Terzioğlu et al. proposed two alternative methods for reconstructing the scalp when the periosteum is not viable: (1) removal of the outer cortex of the skull and direct grafting on the cancellous bone and (2) drilling of the outer cortex of the skull upto diploe, aiming at granulation tissue formation and subsequent grafting.
In 2000, Pitkanen et al. reported a one-stage surgical removal of the outer table of the skull with a high-speed drill, followed by immediate application of a skin graft over the bleeding bone.
Later, many authors proposed various techniques of calvarium trephination. In calvarium trephination techniques, multiple burr holes are made with the help of pneumatic, electric, or hand drill upto diploe. During trephination, abundant irrigation should be given to avoid heat trauma to the bone tissue. Then an occlusive dressing is done on every alternate day. Gradually, granulation tissue starts emerging through the burr holes and covers the calvarium. After that, a split-thickness skin graft is applied over the defect. This whole procedure takes around 6–8 weeks.,, In our case, we used large neurosurgical drill for making burr. After that, within three weeks granulation tissue covered the calvarium and skin grafting is done. This whole procedure takes only four weeks. Therefore, large neurosurgical drill is better than conventional drill.
| » Conclusion|| |
Treatment of total scalp avulsion is difficult and challenging. Calvarium trephination is a safe and effective method for treating such type of injury when microsurgical replantation is not possible.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]