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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 241--248

Neuromodulation Therapies for Spasticity Control: Now and Beyond

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Rockefeller Neuroscience Institute, Morgantown, WV, United States
2 Department of Human Performance, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Nicholas J Brandmeir
PO Box 9183, 1 Medical Center Dr., Morgantown - 26505, WV
United States
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.302464

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Spasticity is a major cause of disability following upper motor neuron (UMN) injury. The diagnosis and treatment of spasticity has been a focus of clinicians and researchers alike. In recent years, there have been significant advances both in strategies for spasticity assessment and in the development of novel treatments. Currently, several well-established spasticity management techniques fall into the major categories of physiotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgical management. The majority of recent developments in all of these broad categories have focused more on methods of neuromodulation instead of simple symptomatic treatment, attempting to address the underlying cause of spasticity more directly. The following narrative review briefly discusses the causes and clinical assessment of spasticity and also details the wide variety of current and developing treatment approaches for this often-debilitating condition.


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Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow