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Table of Contents    
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 70  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 660-663

P300 Wave Latency and Amplitude in Healthy Young Adults: A Normative Data


1 Tutor, Department of Physiology, KD Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Mathura, India
2 Professor, Department of Physiology, RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, India
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, India
4 Postgraduate student, Department of Physiology, RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, India
5 PhD Scholar, Department of Physiology, RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur, India
6 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, KD Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Submission22-Apr-2020
Date of Decision08-Jul-2020
Date of Acceptance06-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication3-May-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jitender Sorout
Department of Physiology, KD Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Mathura
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.344641

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 » Abstract 


Background: Electrophysiological investigations are now very common in clinical investigations. Event-related potential (ERP) is also common in most electrophysiological recording in which P300 is considered as the best indicator of psychological status. P300wave latency and amplitude are the best indicators of superior mental function status. Variability in P300 has been demonstrated in diseases exhibiting cognitive abnormalities.
Objective: The present study aimed to generate the normative data of P300 wave latency and amplitude in healthy young adults of 18–25 years age group in healthy young adults.
Material and Methods: Hundred healthy young adults age (18–25 years) were analyzed for P300 using auditory oddball paradigm [Octopus NCV/EMG/EP-4 Channel Machine (Model name- CMEMG 01)], after taking anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and BMI). Whole data were collected after taking the willing consent of participants recruited for the study, and approval of Institute's ethics committee was taken before the start of study. Normally, distributive data were presented in the form of mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation was used to see check the correlation using MS-excel 2007.
Results: The mean P300 latency and amplitude were 281.38 ± 33.39 ms and 4.53 ± 1.67μV, respectively, in healthy young adults with mean age 19.81 ± 1.80 years. With age the P300 latency was significantly positively correlated.
Conclusions: This study results reflected normative data of P300wave latency and amplitude in healthy young adults of 18–25 years age group.


Keywords: Cognition, electroencephalography, event-related potential, healthy adults
Key Message: P300 is positive event-related potential wave latency with the maximum peak around 300ms post stimulus. Normative data have been generated for adult age group in the Indian population, which serves as the baseline reference for future studies conducted.


How to cite this article:
Sorout J, Kacker S, Saboo N, Soni H, Buttar KK, Reddy S. P300 Wave Latency and Amplitude in Healthy Young Adults: A Normative Data. Neurol India 2022;70:660-3

How to cite this URL:
Sorout J, Kacker S, Saboo N, Soni H, Buttar KK, Reddy S. P300 Wave Latency and Amplitude in Healthy Young Adults: A Normative Data. Neurol India [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 27];70:660-3. Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2022/70/2/660/344641




Electroencephalography (EEG) recording of the human brain was first recorded in 1924 by the German physician Hans Berger, which has shown path for various scientific breakthroughs and clinical applications.[1]In the electrical activity estimating methods of the human brain, the evoked potential (EP) approach possesses great importance for investigating brain mechanisms responsible for higher brain functions.[2]Graphical recording of human brain activities by scalp electrodes area noninvasive method and sensitive tool of ongoing brain activity while resting state and during cognitive tasks.[3]Electrical activities can be recorded as continuous EEG during the resting state, reflects the mental states, and time-locked event-related brain activity, while cognitive tasks that can be analyzed in the time slot as event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reflect neural processing.[4]ERPs are miniature voltages provoked in the brain structures in response to particular stimuli and events.[5] These EEG changes can be used to study psycho physiological correlates of mental processes. Different types of sensory, cognitive, or motor events can be used to develop ERPs. During the processing of information, a large number of relatively oriented cortical pyramidal neurons also fire in synchronicity, reflecting the summation of postsynaptic potentials produced. ERP recordings can be classified into two groups. The early waves occur at about 100 ms after stimulus which termed as “exogenous”, and waves produced in later parts indicate the pattern in which the subject evaluates the stimulus and is termed as “endogenous.” Exogenous mainly depends on the physical parameters of the stimulus and endogenous on persons evaluation but the ERPs as they examine information processing.[6]Recording brain activity in humans using scalp electrodes provides a nonintrusive, measure of ongoing brain function during resting state and during cognitive tasks.[3]

Sutton et al. (1965) introduced the P300 (P3) wave, since then it has been the vital component of research of ERP.[7]Auditory stimuli among 20–70 years age group; the latency range is 250–400 ms. The P300 wave latency reflects the speed of stimulus resulting from discrimination of one event from other event. P3 amplitude reflects stimulus interpretation such that greater attention yields larger P3 waves. Oddball paradigm is the most commonly utilizing paradigm in P300 studies when different stimuli are presented in a series; one of them occurs relatively rarely, which is the oddball. The subject is instructed to respond to the rare or target stimulus and not to the frequently stimulus. Reduction of P300 amplitude is also indicator of the broad neurological problems that underlie within the externalizing spectrum.[8]P300 is a sensitive tool for indicating cognitive decline analysis.[9],[10] Reduced cognitive processing is seen with ageing, which is characterized by increased in latency and decreased in amplitude.[11]So the main objective of present study is to generate the normative data of P300 wave latency and amplitude in healthy young adults of 18–25 years age group in healthy young adults.


 » Materials and Methods Top


The present study was conducted at the Neurophysiology Laboratory of the Physiology Department at RUHS College of Medical Sciences, Jaipur. Institute's ethics committee approval (EC/P47/2018) was taken before the start of the study. Healthy controls were selected in the study. These healthy controls were students of the Institute who were recruited in sample and give willingly consent. Hundred healthy young adults age (18–25 years) were recruited, Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and BMI) were recorded and then analyzed for P300 using auditory oddball paradigm [Octopus NCV/EMG/EP-4 Channel Machine (Model name: CMEMG 01)].[12]

Procedure

The whole test procedure was conducted in a silent acoustic room of Neurophysiology lab. The data were collected early in the morning. Subjects were asked to sit down comfortably and advised not to sleep during the test procedure. Electrodes were placed on scalp. The positions of electrodes are given in [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Electrode placement

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Reference electrode: Reference electrode was placed on the Cz position of scalp.

Active electrode: Two active electrodes were placed on each mastoid process (A1 and A2).

Ground electrode: Ground was placed on the Fpz position [Figure 1].

Subjects were also asked to wear a headphone, through which they heard the rare and frequent tones of different loudness or pitch. Also, subjects were instructed to recognize the rarer type of the tone and raise the finger with the dominant hand each time they heard it. They were instructed to close their eyes and not to sleep during the whole test procedure [Figure 2]. Thus, data were recorded.
Figure 2: Recorded waves in P300

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Normally, distributive data presented in the form of mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation were analyzed to see the correlation in MS-Excel 2007.


 » Results Top


Mean values of demographic data are listed in [Table 1]. Also, the latency and amplitude data of participants are displayed in [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of mean (SD) values of different variables

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There was a significant positive correlation between P300wave latencies with age. However, with BMI, the latency has almost negligible correlation. P300 latency was mildly correlated with amplitude [Table 2].
Table 2: Correlation of P300 latency with

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 » Discussion Top


P300 is a sensitive tool for monitoring cognition and maybe an indicator in the analysis of cognitive deterioration.[10],[11],[12],[13],[14] P300 latency and amplitude are often considered to be importantly related to higher cortical functioning. A decrease in amplitude and increase in latency correspond to cognitive decrement. This study was designed to generate normative data of P300 latency and amplitude of normal young healthy adults. The latency and amplitude were lower than the study done by Uvais et al.[15]Some variability in P300 amplitude and latencies across studies could be due to several factors including food intake, body temperature, and handedness.[16]Further, study parameters in eliciting P300 including the task, paradigm type, types of stimulus, and software used may also affect the values. Thus, it may be desirable to have normative data of young population. It would be also worthwhile to have standardized protocols for conducting ERP studies to make the comparison with reference values meaningful.[17]P300 latency usually decreases during the first years of human life,[18]but in older adults, the parietal P300 latency increases.[19]There was significant correlation of age with P300 latency. BMI and P300 amplitude were inversely correlated with P300 latency, but results were not significant. The P300 latency possibly indicates the neural speed or mental capability. The P300 amplitude possibly indicates cognitive resources or neural strength, which increase with the advancement of age. Agarwal S et al. concluded that no association was observed between BMI and cognition.[20] Dinteren R et al. suggested that latency and amplitude reflect different aspects of brain maturation. Specifically, the P300 amplitude might be an index for the amount of cognitive capability being used, increasing in the early stages of development, and decreasing with further increase in age beyond adolescence.[11]


 » Conclusions Top


This study results reflected normative data of P300 wave latency and amplitude in healthy young adults of 18–25 years age group.

Acknowledgement

We would like to thanks all the medical students and technical staff of RUHS, Jaipur.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
 » References Top

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Collura TF. History and evolution of electroencephalographic instruments and techniques. J Clin Neurophysioz1993;10:476-504.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Gnezditskii VV, Shamshinova MA. Experience ofApplication of Evoked Potentials in Clinical Practice. Moscow: MBN; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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Porjesz B, Rangaswamy M, Kamarajan C, Jones KA, Padmanabhapillai A, Begleiter H, et al. The utility of neurophysiological markers in the study of alcoholism. Clin Neurophysiol2005;116:993-18.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Niedermeyer E. The normal EEG in the waking adult. In: Niedermeyer E, Lopes da Silva FH, editors. Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications and Related Fields. 5th ed. New York: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2005. Available from: https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/45745233.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Blackwood DH, Muir WJ. Cognitive brain potentials and their application. Br J Psychiatry1990;157:96-101.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Peterson NN, Schroeder CE, Arezzo JC. Neural generators of early cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in the awake monkey. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol1995;96:248-60.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Sutton S, Braren M, Zubin J, John ER. Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 1965;150:1187-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Patrick CJ, Bernat E, Malone SM, Iacono WG, Krueger RF, McGue M. P300 amplitude as an indicator of externalizing in adolescent males. Psychophysiology2006;43:84-92.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
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Jiang S, Qu C, Wang F, Liu Y, Qiao Z, Qiu X, Yang X, et al. Using event-related potential P300 as an electrophysiological marker for differential diagnosis and to predict the progression of mild cognitive impairment: A meta-analysis. Neurol Sci 2015;36:1105-12.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
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Picton TW, Hillyard SA. Human auditory evoked potentials. Effects of attention. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol1974;36:191-99.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
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Dinteren R, Arns M, Jongsma ML, Kessels RP. P300 development across the lifespan: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2014;9:1-13.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
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National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)- Anthropometry Procedures Manual, January 2007.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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Vecchio F, Määttä S. The use of auditory event-related potentials in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2011:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Rossini PM, Rossi S, Babiloni C, Polich J. Clinical neurophysiology of aging brain: From normal aging to neurodegeneration. Prog Neurobiol 2007;83:375-400.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
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Uvais NA, Nizamie SH, Das B. Auditory P300 event-related potential: Normative data in the Indian population. Neurology India 2018;6:176-80.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
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Polich J, Kok A. Cognitive and biological determinants of P300: An integrative review. Biol Psychol 1995;41:103-46.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
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Polich J. Meta-analysis of P300 normative aging studies. Psychophysiology 1996;33:334-53.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
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Tsai M-L, Hung K-L, Tao-Hsin Tung W, Chiang TR. Age-changed normative auditory event-related potential value in children in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc 2012;111:245-52.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
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Walhovd KB, Rosquist H, Fjell AM. P300 amplitude age reductions are not caused by latency jitter. Psychophysiology 2008;45:545-53.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Agarwal S, BhallaP, Kaur S., Babbar R. Effect of body mass index on physical self concept, cognition and academic performance of first year medical students. Indian J Med Res 2013;138:515-22.  Back to cited text no. 20
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