Neurology India
menu-bar5 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus
  Users online: 17012  
 Home | Login 
About Editorial board Articlesmenu-bullet NSI Publicationsmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Videos Etcetera Contact
  Navigate Here 
 Resource Links
  »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
  »  Article in PDF (905 KB)
  »  Citation Manager
  »  Access Statistics
  »  Reader Comments
  »  Email Alert *
  »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Materials and Me...
 » Results
 » Discussion
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded16    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


Table of Contents    
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 70  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 1500-1505

Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders in North Indian Population: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center

1 Department of Neurology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Ophthalmology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Intervention Radiology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India
4 Department of Immunopathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Date of Submission26-Mar-2018
Date of Decision26-Mar-2018
Date of Acceptance26-Mar-2018
Date of Web Publication30-Aug-2022

Correspondence Address:
Vivek Lal
Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.355118

Rights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

Introduction: To understand neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) better we need to study them in different populations. This prospective study was conducted to characterize clinical, serological, radiological, and therapeutic profile of NMOSDs in a North Indian population.
Materials and Methods: This study included 81 patients with NMOSDs. All patients underwent detailed history and examinations and were followed at 3 monthly intervals. They were evaluated using standard investigations including gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine with thin section optic nerve cuts and treated as per the standard guidelines. Data were recorded meticulously.
Results: The mean age was 33.7 ± 13.4 years. The mean age at disease onset was 31.2 ± 13.5 years. Female-to-male ratio was 1.9:1. About 32.1% of patients presented with optic neuritis (ON), 56.8% with transverse myelitis (TM), and 11.1% with both ON and TM. The mean time from disease onset to diagnosis was 16.17 ± 23.09 months. Muscle atrophy, Lhermitte symptom, and tonic spasms were common. Foster–Kennedy syndrome-like presentation was seen in 8.6%. NMO antibodies were positive in 41 patients. MRI revealed involvement of <4 vertebral segments in 16.4% of patients with TM. Patients were managed as per standard guidelines. The mean follow-up duration was 15.3 ± 6 months. Approximately 88.9% had good functional outcome.
Conclusion: NMOSDs are a common cause of demyelinating illnesses in Northern India. The response to treatment is excellent and most patients recover without residual disability.

Keywords: Neuromyelitis optica, North Indian, NMOSD
Key Message: NMO patients outnumber multiple sclerosis patients in North India. With early diagnosis and prompt immunosuppressive treatment most patients achieve very good to excellent recovery.

How to cite this article:
Sachdeva J, Goyal MK, Singh R, Kapila AT, Singh P, Saikia B, Lal V. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders in North Indian Population: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center. Neurol India 2022;70:1500-5

How to cite this URL:
Sachdeva J, Goyal MK, Singh R, Kapila AT, Singh P, Saikia B, Lal V. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders in North Indian Population: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center. Neurol India [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Oct 2];70:1500-5. Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2022/70/4/1500/355118

Although clinical descriptions of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), traditionally known as Devic disease date back to times of Allbutt (1870) and Devic and his student Gault (1894), it is only in 2004 following discovery of highly specific neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO IgG) that these disorders gained worldwide acceptance.[1],[2],[3] NMOSDs constitute a heterogeneous group of inflammatory demyelinating disorders (IDMs) which primarily affect optic nerves and spinal cord, but can affect other areas of central nervous system as well.[4] The underlying event in pathogenesis of NMOSDs is development of autoimmunity against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) which is a cell membrane water channel protein expressed on the foot processes of astrocytes and involved in maintaining blood–brain barrier integrity.[5] The AQP4 antibodies, also called NMO IgG antibodies, are considered pathogenic marker of NMO.[6],[7] Approximately 25% of the individuals with AQP4-negative NMOSDs are seropositive for antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG).[1],[7] NMOSDs are believed to represent a higher proportion of IDMs in the non-Caucasian population including India.[1] Despite this, there is paucity of data on epidemiological, clinical, and investigational profile of NMOSDs in developing nations[5],[8] and none from north Indian population. Thus, there is need to determine epidemiological, clinical, and investigational profile of NMOSDs as well as their response to more commonly used immunosuppressant drugs (for instance, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, etc.) in developing countries compared to costly treatments such as pulsed intravenous (IV) immunoglobulin therapy in the West. Hence, we planned this study to characterize clinical, serological, and radiological profile of NMOSD in North Indian population.

Aims and objectives

  1. To study clinical, radiological, and serological profile of North Indian patients with NMOSDs.
  2. To study effects of various treatment regimens in NMOSDs and characterize various treatment-related complications.

 » Materials and Methods Top

This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care referral center and teaching hospital in Northern India from July 2015 to June 2017. During this period, all patients (n = 81) who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for NMOSDs were recruited in the study. The study was approved by institutional ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all the patients before enrolment in the study. The diagnosis of NMOSDs was made as per International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria.[9] The inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study are given below.

Inclusion criteria

  1. Patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria for NMOSD
  2. Patients willing to give written informed consent and for follow-up.

Exclusion criteria

  1. Patients with alternate IDMs like multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, neurosarcoidosis, etc.
  2. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and/or herpes simplex virus-positive status.


Once enrolled, all patients underwent clinical history and examination as per a predesigned proforma. These were followed up at 3 monthly intervals and on an as and when required basis. All the patients underwent gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain and spine with thin section optic nerve cuts. Decision to carry out follow-up neuroimaging was based on patient's clinical course. All the patients also underwent detailed neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation. All patients underwent routine investigations and special investigations (computed tomography of chest and abdomen, vasculitic work-up, nerve conduction studies, and tissue biopsies wherever indicated) to rule out underlying neoplasm or associated connective tissue disorders. All patients underwent treatment as per standard guidelines for NMOSDs and according to their affordability. All the data were recorded meticulously.

Statistical analysis

Data were entered in SPSS version 23. The quantitative variables were expressed as mean, median, and standard deviation. Qualitative or categorical variables were described as frequencies and proportions. Proportions were compared using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test whichever was applicable. For normally distributed data, means of two groups were compared using Student's t-test. For skewed data, Mann–Whitney test was applied. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

 » Results Top

Demographic profile

This study included 81 patients of NMOSDs. The mean age of study population was 33.7 ± 13.4 years (range: 14–78 years), while the mean age of onset of disease was 31.2 ± 13.5 (range: 8–75) years. The female (n = 53) to male (n = 28) ratio was 1.9:1. In all, 26 (32.1%) patients presented with optic neuritis (ON) (unilateral, 19; bilateral, 7), 46 (56.8%) with transverse myelitis (TM), while 9 (11.1%) presented with both ON and TM. 12/26 (46.2%) patients with ON were positive for NMO antibodies. The remaining 14 (53.8%) patients with ON were diagnosed by MRI findings (optic chiasma involvement, 5; involvement of >½ of length of optic nerve, 9]. The mean time from disease onset to diagnosis was 16.17 ± 23.09 months (range: 1–160 months). The mean number of episodes before diagnosis was 2.02 ± 1.643 (range: 1–14). Among patients with TM (n = 55), muscle atrophy, Lhermitte symptom, tonic spasms, flexor spasms, and flaccid bladder were seen in 63.7%, 30.9%, 43.6%, 78.2%, and 11.6%, respectively. Among patients with ON (n = 35), a Foster–Kennedy syndrome-like presentation was seen in 3 (8.6%) patients. These and other data are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Demographic and clinic profile of patients with NMOSDs

Click here to view

Investigational profile

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of brain, optic nerves, and spine was done in all the patients. It revealed dorsal brainstem lesions adjacent to fourth ventricle in 7 (8.6%) patients and diencephalic, periependymal, and hemispheric white matter lesions in 1 (1.2%) patient each. MRI of optic nerves revealed optic nerve enhancement in 14 (17.3%) and optic nerve thinning in 3 (3.7%) patients. None of the patients with clinically pure ON had MRI evidence of lesions in cord. Among patients with TM (n = 55), 9 (16.4%) had involvement of <4 vertebral segments. MRI data are summarized in [Table 2]. MRI findings in NMO are shown in [Figure 1].
Table 2: Investigational profile of patients with NMOSDs

Click here to view
Figure 1: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs): (a) gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of optic nerve showing thickened and enhancing optic nerves (blue arrows); (b) thickened and enhancing optic chiasma on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (blue arrows); (c) longitudinally extensive cord lesion on T2-weighted sagittal images (blue arrows), and (d) brainstem lesion on T2-weighted sagittal images (blue arrows)

Click here to view

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and autoantibody profile: CSF revealed pleocytosis only in 13.6% of patients while autoantibodies [NMO antibodies (n = 38)/MOG antibodies (n = 3)] were detected in 50.6% of patients [Table 2].

VEP (visual evoked potentials): VEPs (n = 80) were abnormal in 48 patients. In pure ON group, VEPs were normal in 1 and abnormal in 25 patients. In patients with pure TM, VEPs were abnormal in 17 patients (unilateral in all). In patients with both ON and TM (n = 9), VEPs were abnormal in six patients.

Management data

Management of acute attack: All patients received IV methylprednisolone (MP) (1 g daily for 5 days) during acute attack. In addition, five patients needed plasmapheresis and three needed IV immunoglobulin (IVIG). All patients who received plasmapheresis improved. One patient who received both IV MP and IVIG succumbed to his illness because of ventilator-associated pneumonia with sepsis.

Prevention of relapses (n = 80): In this study, monthly IV MP (1 g daily for 3–5 days) was used to prevent relapses in all patients as alternative immunosuppressant drugs often take 3–6 months for their action to start. The alternate drugs included azathioprine (3 mg/kg) (n = 18), IV cyclophosphamide (n = 29), mycophenolate sodium (720 mg twice daily) (n = 8), methotrexate (12.5–20 mg daily) (n = 23), IVIG (2 g/kg over 5 days) + rituximab (375 mg/m2 BSA weekly for 4 weeks) (n = 2). Various drug-related adverse effects included vomiting (n = 5; all during administration of cyclophosphamide), pancytopenia (n = 1; on azathioprine), and varicella zoster (n = 3; one on cyclophosphamide and two on rituximab). Treatment changes were required in 15 patients because of relapses or toxicity. Six of 18 (33%) patients on azathioprine (Poor efficacy-5; pancytopenia-1) required change to alternate drugs (cyclophosphamide, 3; mycophenolate, 1; rituximab, 2). Nine of 23 (39.1%) patients on methotrexate (poor efficacy, 9) needed change to cyclophosphamide. None of the patients in cyclophosphamide group needed drug change. Mycophenolate needed to be replaced by cyclophosphamide in two and rituximab in two patients.

Follow-up: Good response to treatment was noted in most patients. The mean follow-up duration was 15.3 ± 6 months (range: 6–32 months). The mean follow-up was 16.1 months in ON group and 14.8 months in TM group. Schwab and England activities of daily living (ADLs) scale and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) were used to follow patients with TM, whereas patients with ON were followed by ADL scale only. The EDSS and ADLs data are shown in [Table 3].
Table 3: ADL good or poor at onset and final follow-up

Click here to view

Various predictors of poor outcome in NMOSDs

We determined various demographic, clinical, and radiological features which could predict poor outcome in NMOSDs. For this, patients with pure ON, pure TM, and both ON and TM were divided into two groups: (a) those with poor outcome (ADL score ≤60%) and (b) those with satisfactory or good outcome (ADL score >60%). Patients with TM were further divided into three groups based on EDSS score: (a) poor outcome (EDSS ≥6), (b) moderate outcome (EDSS = 5–5.5), and (c) good outcome (EDSS ≤4.5). On analysis, we could not find any factor which determines poor outcome at disease onset. The presence of NMO antibodies did not have any bearing on clinical/investigational parameters, response to treatment, and outcome.

NMOSD versus MS

During the study period we enrolled 32 patients in our MS registry. Thus, NMOSDs patients outnumbered patients with MS by a factor of 2.53.

 » Discussion Top

It is imperative to study NMOSDs in different populations to promote our understanding of global profile of NMOSDs and implement strategies to address this debilitating disorder. The mean age in this study (33.67 ± 13.41 years) was in agreement with prior studies from French West Indies,[10] Denmark,[11] and Southern India.[12] The lower age of ON (28.42 ± 9.71 years) compared to patients with TM (35.25 ± 14.41 years) was in agreement with Kitley et al.[13] The female-to-male ratio of 1.9:1 in our cohort was lower than previous studies.[10],[11] The differentiation of NMOSDs into ON, TM, and TM + ON groups was also in accordance with previous studies from Spain[14] and Brazil.[15] The man time from disease onset to diagnosis was 16.17 ± 23.09 (range: 1–160) months and the majority (n = 59; 72.8%) of these patients were treated as alternative disorders. These values are alarmingly high for a disorder which is known to present acutely and leave considerable residual neurological sequalae in absence of treatment. Thus, need to educate primary care physicians about NMOSDs cannot be overemphasized. Regarding clinical features of TM, our findings were similar to Jacob et al.[16] and Pandit and Kundapur[12] who reported Lhermitte symptoms, bladder involvement, and tonic spasms to be common in TM. Sato et al.[17] reported cervicomedullary symptoms in 21% of patients with NMOSD compared to 31% in our study. Relapses are reported to affect 80%–90% of patients with NMOSD at 3 years of follow-up. However, we found relapsing course only in 18% of patients. The cause for this discrepancy may be the fact that all our patients (even with one episode) received long-term immunomodulation and relatively short duration of follow-up. Coexisting illnesses (malignancies and other autoimmune diseases) were present in 9 of 81 (11.1%) patients. Thus, NMOSDs should be considered in all patients who present with suggestive clinical features in patients with malignancies or other autoimmune disorders. In all, 38 (46.9%) patients were AQP4 antibody-positive, whereas 3 (3.7%) were anti-MOG antibody-positive. In a study from Southern India,[12] NMO IgG was positive in 39% of patients. The lower positivity rate of NMO IgG antibodies in our cohort compared to western studies[11] may be related to difference in population characteristics and better awareness of existence of NMOSDs whereby a large number of patients with AQP4 antibody-negative NMOSDs were diagnosed and included in our cohort. About 16.3% of patients with TM had <4 vertebral involvement on MRI spine. Similarly, 16.3% of patients had involvement of <50% of cross-sectional area of the cord. Similarly, gadolinium-enhanced MRI of brain with thin section ON cuts was normal in 18 of 35 (51.4%) patients. This stresses on need to keep high index of suspicion for diagnosis of NMOSDs even in absence of MRI findings which are considered classic of NMOSDs. MRI brain revealed abnormalities in 54.3% of patients similar to a Korean study.[18] There is a lack of controlled trials evaluating treatment of NMOSDs and treatment recommendations are based on observational studies and expert opinion. In our protocol, we managed all acute attacks (n = 81) with IV MP (1 g daily for 5 days). Patients who did not improve (n = 8) received plasma exchange (PE) (n = 5) or IVIG. Crout et al.[19] have recommended IV MP in acute attacks of NMO followed by PE, while Elsone et al.[20] have recommended IVIG for acute relapse of NMO. There are no well-established guidelines on prevention of relapses in NMO. Crout et al.[19] have recommended treatment with immunosuppressant drugs such as oral prednisolone, azathioprine, mycophenolate, methotrexate, IV cyclophosphamide, and IV rituximab for at least 5 years after an acute episode. Oral prednisolone is recommended in dosage of 1 mg/kg/day followed by tapering to lowest effective dose. In our protocol, we used pulse IV MP (1 g daily for 3–5 days) every month for 6 months instead of oral prednisolone as maintenance therapy. It is worthwhile to note that none of our patients experienced common steroid related side effects such as cushingoid features, infections, or cataracts which are routinely noted in patients on long-term oral steroids. Thus, IV MP is a suitable alternative to oral steroids. In this study, we chose other immunosuppressant drugs based on the severity of the episode and patient's financial status. For severe episodes with marked disability or patients with relapses on oral therapy, IV cyclophosphamide or IV rituximab (depending on financial status) was used. For patients with financial constraints, we used methotrexate and IV cyclophosphamide. For unmarried women and those planning pregnancy in the future, azathioprine was the drug of choice.


Most of our patients had good outcomes at follow-up [Table 3]. Various predictors of poor outcome described in NMO/NMOSD include older age of onset, severe first episode, seropositive disease, multiple relapses within the initial 2 years of diagnosis, and coexistent autoimmune disorders.[21],[22] In this study, we did not find any factor which could adversely affect outcome of NMOSDs. This is likely related to the fact that we treated all our patients with aggressive immunomodulation form beginning and most of patients in our cohort had good outcomes.

To conclude, NMOSDs are a common cause of demyelinating illnesses in Northern India. The response to treatment is excellent and most patients recover without residual disability. A high index of suspicion, appropriate investigations, and aggressive immunomodulation are the keys to successful outcome.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 » References Top

Wingerchuk DM, Lennon VA, Lucchinetti CF, Pittock SJ, Weinshenker BG. The spectrum of neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:805-15.  Back to cited text no. 1
Allbutt TC. On the ophthalmoscopic signs of spinal disease. Lancet 1870;95:76-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
Devic E. Myélite subaiguë compliquée de névrite optique. Bull Med 1894;8:1033-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
Lucchineti CF, Mandler RN, Mc Gavern D, Bruck W, Gleich G, Ransohoff RM, et al. A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic's neuromyelitis optica. Brain 2002;125:1450-61.  Back to cited text no. 4
Pandit L. Neuromyelitis optica antibody (NMO-IgG) status in Indian patients with multiple sclerosis and allied demyelinating disorders. Neurol Asia 2008;13:175-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
Graber DJ, Levy M, Kerr D, Wade WF. Neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis and aquaporin 4. J Neuroinflamm 2008;5:1  Back to cited text no. 6
Papadopoulos MC, Verkman AS. Aquaporin 4 and neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:535-44.  Back to cited text no. 7
Barhate KS, Ganeshan M, Singhal BS. A clinical and radiological profile of neuromyelitis optica and spectrum disorders in an Indian cohort. Ann Ind Acad Neurol 2014;17:77.  Back to cited text no. 8
Wingerchuk DM, Banwell B, Bennett JL, Cabre P, Carroll W, Chitnis T, et al. International consensus diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Neurology 2015;85:187-99.  Back to cited text no. 9
Cabre P. Environmental changes and epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in the French West Indies. J Neurol Sci 2009;286:58-61.  Back to cited text no. 10
Asgari N, Lillevang ST, Skejoe HP, Falah M, Stenager E, Kyvik KO, et al. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians. Neurology 2011;76:1589-95.  Back to cited text no. 11
Pandit L, Kundapur R. Prevalence and patterns of demyelinating central nervous system disorders in urban Mangalore, South India. Mult Scler J 2014:20:1651-3.  Back to cited text no. 12
Kitley J, Leite MI, Küker W, Quaghebeur G, George J, Waters P, et al. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis with and without aquaporin 4 antibodies. JAMA Neurol 2013;70:1375-81.  Back to cited text no. 13
Höftberger R, Sepulveda M, Armangue T, Blanco Y, Rostásy K, Calvo AC, et al. Antibodies to MOG and AQP4 in adults with neuromyelitis optica and suspected limited forms of the disease. Mult Scler 2015;21:866-74.  Back to cited text no. 14
Jiao Y, Fryer JP, Lennon VA, Jenkins SM, Quek AM, Smith CY, et al. Updated estimate of AQP4-IgG serostatus and disability outcome in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2013;81:1197-204.  Back to cited text no. 15
Jacob A, Matiello M, Wingerchuk DM, Lucchinetti CF, Pittock SJ, Weinshenker BG. Neuromyelitis optica: Changing concepts. J Neuroimmunol 2007;187:126-38.  Back to cited text no. 16
Sato DK, Callegaro D, Lana-Peixoto MA, Waters PJ, de Haidar Jorge FM, Takahashi T, et al. Distinction between MOG antibody positive and AQP4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorders. Neurology 2014;82(6):474-81.  Back to cited text no. 17
Kim W, Park MS, Lee SH, Kim SH, Jung IJ, Takahashi T, et al. Characteristic brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in central nervous system aquaporin-4 autoimmunity. Mult Scler 2010;16:1229-36.  Back to cited text no. 18
Crout TM, Parks LP, Majithia V. Neuromyelitis optica (Devic's syndrome): An appraisal. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2016;18:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 19
Elsone L, Panicker J, Mutch K, Boggild M, Appleton R, Jacob A. Role of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of acute relapses of neuromyelitis optica: Experience in 10 patients. Mult Scler J 2014;24:501-4.  Back to cited text no. 20
Li T, Xiao H, Li S, Du X, Zhou J. Multiple sclerosis: Clinical features and MRI findings in Northern China. Eur J Med Res 2014;19:1.  Back to cited text no. 21
Jarius S, Paul F, Franciotta D, Ruprecht K, Ringelstein M, Bergamaschi R, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid findings in aquaporin-4 antibody positive neuromyelitis optica: Results from 211 lumbar punctures. J Neurol Sci 2011;306:82-90.  Back to cited text no. 22


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


Print this article  Email this article
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow