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|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 1759
Ophthalmoplegic Migraine: A Misnomer of Recurrent Painful Ophthalmoplegic Neuropathy
Hung Youl Seok, Mi-Yeon Eun
Departments of Neurology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, School of Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea
|Date of Submission||20-Jul-2019|
|Date of Decision||04-Nov-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||25-Jul-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Aug-2022|
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, 807 Hoguk-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 41404
Republic of Korea
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Seok HY, Eun MY. Ophthalmoplegic Migraine: A Misnomer of Recurrent Painful Ophthalmoplegic Neuropathy. Neurol India 2022;70:1759
A 48-year-old woman presented with migraine-like headache and diplopia. The headache was severe, throbbing, and localized in the left temporal area, and it was associated with nausea and photophobia. Her headache disappeared within a day. She had a history of migraine without aura for at least 7 years, occurring about once every 2 months. The headache during the current episode was similar to her habitual headache. The diplopia began several hours after the onset of headache and completely recovered after 6 days. She reported having had a similar episode of diplopia with migraine-like headache 7 years ago. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed thickening and enhancement of the cisternal portion of the left oculomotor nerve [Figure 1]. There were no abnormalities in other structures, including the orbital, parasellar, and posterior fossa region. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a white blood cell count of 0 cells/mL, a slightly elevated CSF protein level of 62.3 mg/dL (normal range: <45 mg/dL), and a normal CSF/serum glucose ratio, suggesting inflammatory reaction. We diagnosed her with ophthalmoplegic migraine presenting with oculomotor nerve paresis. As there was evidence showing an inflammatory reaction in the oculomotor nerve, she was given high-dose intravenous steroid treatment for 5 days. During a 2-year follow-up, she had no recurrence.
|Figure 1: MRI showing thickening (a, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image) and gadolinium enhancement (b, T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced image) of the cisternal portion of the left oculomotor nerve|
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In the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3), ophthalmoplegic migraine has been renamed recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy because of its response to steroids and the appearance of gadolinium enhancement or nerve thickening on MRI. However, there is still debate as to whether ophthalmoplegic migraine is a migraine phenomenon or a different sort of condition entirely.,, In our case, the patient showed increased CSF protein during the episode. This finding provides further support for the ICHD-3 that ophthalmoplegic migraine is a misnomer because it is not a migraine variant but rather a recurrent inflammatory cranial neuropathy.
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