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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
November-December 2020
Volume 68 | Issue 6
Page Nos. 1277-1513

Online since Saturday, December 19, 2020

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NI FEATURE: THE FIRST IMPRESSION  

The Cover Page - Endoscopic-view of Supra-Cerebellar Infratentorial Approach Highly accessed article p. 1277
Sandeep Kandregula, Bharat Guthikonda
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304085  PMID:33342851
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EDITORIAL Top

The Need for Uniform Residency Training Programs and the challenges during COVID Pandemic for India Highly accessed article p. 1279
P Sarat Chandra
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304084  PMID:33342852
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SPECIAL NI FEATURE: PEARLS FROM PAST Top

Expert Commentary on “The Brain and Meninges in Tuberculosis Meningitis - Gross Pathology in 100 Cases and Pathogenesis” by Darab K Dastur, VS Lalitha, PM Udani, and Usha Parekh p. 1281
Prakash Narain Tandon
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304083  PMID:33342853
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Systematic Review of Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of AVM: Indications, Bleeding Complications, Cure Rate, and Long-Term Bleeding Risk p. 1285
Xianli Lv, Yupeng Zhang, James Wang
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304101  PMID:33342854
Objective: This study was to assess the proportion of patients that have bleeding complications, cure rates, and long-term bleeding events for each of the indications (monotherapy, pre- stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and presurgery) for AVM embolization. Methods: Published literature in the PubMed database by May 2016 citing embolization results for AVMs using liquid embolic agents was reviewed. Additional studies were identified through reference searches in each reviewed article. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the bleeding complications, cure rate, and long-term bleeding risk. Results: We identified 30 studies, including 5103 patients. The overall cure rate was 18%. Curative embolization was achieved in 24% of monotherapy, 10% of pre-surgical, and 16% after pre-SRS. In the Onyx group, the cure rate was higher of 25% ( χ2 = 6.25, P < 0.025). Multiple session (≥2) associated with a higher cure rate of 23% (χ2 = 10.53, P < 0.005). The overall bleeding complication rate of transarterial embolization was 5%. The case fatality of bleeding complication was 31%. Onyx and pre-SRS embolization have a higher bleeding complication rate of 8%. The small studies reported a higher cure rate and bleeding complication rate than large studies. Conclusion: Onyx has increased the cure rate and bleeding complication rate of AVM embolization. Multiple sessions are associated with a higher cure rate and do not increase the bleeding complication. Current pre-SRS AVM embolization has a higher bleeding complication rate. There are publication biases between small and large studies.
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COMMENTARY Top

Endovascular Treatment in AVM Management: Towards Realistic Goals? p. 1293
Ullas V Acharya, Paritosh Pandey
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304073  PMID:33342855
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Liquid Biopsy in Gliomas- A Review p. 1295
Amitava Ray
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304105  PMID:33342856
Background: Are we witnessing the end of the biopsy as we know it? Is this the start of a revolution in cancer diagnostics and treatment where analysis of somatic mutations present in the blood, CSF, or urine followed by targeted therapy replaces the traditional surgery followed by chemo-radiation? Since 2016, molecular markers are an integral part of the 'glioma' treatment decision-making process- diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic. A lot of these somatic mutations that identify and prognosticate tumors are also detected in the adjoining bio-fluids in serum or CSF- the sampling of which is known as liquid biopsy. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the advancement of scientific techniques that now allows the investigation of these bio-fluids, to diagnose, prognosticate and treat gliomas. Material and Methods: This review article is an exhaustive review of the literature that summarises the role of the three main liquid biopsy modalities- Circulating Tumor Cells, Cell-free Tumor DNA and Exosomes in the detection of known diagnostic and prognostic markers in gliomas. Results: The current review highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the diffrerent modalities in use, and their potential use in the clinical setting. Conclusion: Liquid biopsies hold tremendous potential in the diagnosis and management of gliomas in the future.
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Basilar Artery Perforator Aneurysms and their Contemporary Management p. 1301
Mithun G Sattur, Arunprasad Gunasekaran, Alejandro M Spiotta, Jonathan R Lena
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304111  PMID:33342857
Background: Aneurysms arising in relation to perforators of the basilar artery (basilar perforator aneurysms or BPA) are very rare. Prior literature indicates the need for typically more than one angiogram for diagnosis, and argues for the utility of delayed angiograms in cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with initial negative studies. Different treatment modalities for BPA including endovascular, microsurgical, and conservative management have been described. Contemporary management appears to favor endovascular therapy. We discuss the topic by presenting a case which represents the first instance of BPA diagnosis after a fourth angiogram and subsequent successful endovascular occlusion. A literature review is provided. Objective: To discuss the unique presentation and management dilemmas in the rare entity of basilar artery perforator aneurysms by presentation of a case that was managed successfully by endovascular means. We also indirectly highlight the need for multiple follow-up angiograms in initial angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods and Materials: We describe a 62–year-old male presenting with good clinical grade SAH and three negative angiograms, whose hospital course was complicated by repeat intraventricular hemorrhage. A fourth angiogram revealed a BPA. Multiple overlapping stents placed in the basilar artery achieved successful aneurysm exclusion. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed on PubMed. Results and Conclusions: Only 57 cases of BPAs have been described in literature. Multiple angiograms may be necessary for diagnosis. These aneurysms present with SAH. Endovascular flow modification is the current treatment of choice by means of overlapping stents or flow diversion.
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NI SPECIAL FEATURE: OPERATIVE NUANCES: STEP BY STEP (VIDEO SECTION) Top

Supracerebellar Infratentorial Endoscopy for Quadrigeminal Cistern Epidermoid p. 1307
Sivashanmugam Dhandapani
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304077  PMID:33342858
Background: The standard microscopic supracerebellar infratentorial approach for the pineal region is limited by tunnel vision. Herein, we describe endoscopic supracerebellar infratentorial surgery in a patient with quadrigeminal cistern epidermoid presenting with hydrocephalus. Description: In the sitting position, following a 6 cm longitudinal incision and small suboccipital craniotomy, the dura was cut in V shape and kept reflected. The bridging veins were coagulated and cut, taking the 0° endoscope inside. A sharp incision is given over the thickened arachnoid over the inferior paramedian area. The precentral cerebellar vein is exposed at the lower part, coagulated and divided. Gentle bimanual intracapsular removal of the epidermoid flakes is performed with intermittent saline irrigation and suction. Assisted by rotating the angled endoscope, curved coaxial instruments help remove the cerebello-mesencephalic and lateral extensions of the epidermoid. Conclusion: Endoscopic supracerebellar infratentorial approach provides a panoramic and angled view of the pineal region, through a narrow corridor, avoiding cerebellar retraction.
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Endoscopic Anterior Cervical Discectomy (Disc Preserving) p. 1310
Shailendra Ratre, Yad R Yadav, MN Swamy, Vijay Parihar, Jitin Bajaj
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304078  PMID:33342859
Background and Introduction: Endoscopic anterior cervical approach has several advantages compared to conventional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Objective: This video demonstrates a step-by-step procedure for endoscopic anterior cervical discectomy. Procedure: The patient is placed supine with the neck extended. A standard anterior cervical approach using about 3 cm skin incision is made and under “Easy Go” (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) endoscopic vision, the uncinate process and uncus are drilled. Only a small portion of the normal disc, posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL), and compressing disc is removed. The closure is done in a standard manner. Results: In 240 patients, the average postoperative reduction in disc height, operating time, and blood loss were 1.1 ± 0.2 mm, 110 ± 17 min, and 30 ± 11 mL, respectively. The average postoperative VAS score and Nurick grading improved significantly. There were no permanent complications or any mortality. Conclusion: Endoscopic technique is an effective and safe alternative to ACDF after attaining the learning curve.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Frontotemporal Branch of the Facial Nerve and Fascial Layers in the Temporal Region: A Cadaveric Study to Define a Safe Dissection Plane p. 1313
Rakesh K Sihag, Sunil K Gupta, Daisy Sahni, Ashish Aggarwal
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304113  PMID:33342860
Background: Anatomy of the temporal region is complex with controversy over the relationship of fascial planes with the upper division of the facial nerve. Objective: This study aimed to identify the safe surgical landmarks to preserve the frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve during surgery and define the safest approach for surgical procedures in this region. Material and Methods: The anatomical relationship of the frontal branch of the facial nerve, superficial temporal artery (STA), fascial planes, and fat pads was determined after dissection on 10 cadaveric heads, that is (20 sides) Dissection was performed layer by layer from skin to bone. Results: The temporoparietal fascia was made up of multiple (3–4) layers above the zygomatic arch and these layers were integrated with thin fibrous septa. The frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve (FTFN) was observed in a deeper part of temporoparietal fascia and superficial fat pad. The frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve (FTFN) crossed the zygomatic arch as two branches in 25%, as three branches in 65% and as four branches in 10% of specimens. Conclusions: Interfascial dissection between two layers of deep temporal fascia through the intermediate fat pad is superior to other approaches because of the lack of facial nerve branches in this plane. The Intermediate fat could be easily separated from deep layer of deep temporal fascia.
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COMMENTARY Top

Facial Nerve Preservation During Temporal Exposure- Search for an Optimal Strategy p. 1321
Girish Menon
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304079  PMID:33342861
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Determination of Etiology and Epidemiology of Viral Central Nervous System Infections by Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in Central India Population p. 1323
Ragini I Tiwari, Shradha S Bhullar, Nitin H Chandak, Neeraj N Baheti, Hatim F Daginawala, Lokendra R Singh, Rajpal S Kashyap
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304080  PMID:33342862
Introduction: Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are the most common cause of hospital admission in worldwide and remain a challenging disease for diagnosis and treatment. The most common infectious agents associated with viral CNS infections are cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus (DENV),West Nile virus(WNV), and Chandipura virus(CHPV). The aim of the present work was to find the etiology of CNS viral infection in the Central India population by transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) comparing real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method [one-step and two-step reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR)] in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples of CNS viral infections patients. Materials and Methods: One-step and two-step real-time PCR assays were evaluated in CSF and parallel blood samples from patients with viral CNS infections for detection of DNA and RNA viruses. A comparative analysis was also done between gDNA, gRNA, cDNA, and plasmid-based real-time PCR methods for an efficient quantitation of viral particles in clinical samples for determination of viral etiology. Result: On evaluation of 150 CSF and 50 parallel blood samples from suspected cases of viral CNS infections, a viral etiology was confirmed in 21 (14%) cases, including 3% for EBV, 1% of CMV, and 5% for VZV and JEV. The one-step RT-PCR has a higher detection limit for detection and quantitation of viral RNA in comparison to two-step RT-PCR. Conclusion: Our result reveals that VZV and JEV are the most usual cases of CNS viral infection in hospitalized patients in the Central India population and one-step RT-PCR shows higher viral load detection limits for quantitation of viral genome and more sensitivity in comparison to two-step RT-PCR.
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COMMENTARY Top

Diagnosis CNS Viral Infections by Real-Time PCR: Further Exploration Needed p. 1331
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304086  PMID:33342863
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE Top

Investigation of the Association between Headache Type, Frequency, and Clinical and Radiological Findings in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis p. 1333
Ozcan Demetgul, Taskin Duman, Murat Guntel
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304126  PMID:33342864
Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of primary headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), to determine the type of headache according to the criteria of International Headache Society and to investigate the relationship between primary headache type and MS subtype, and the relationship between the localization of plaques in the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with MS clinic. Methods: In this study, we include the patients diagnosed with MS according to the Mc Donald criteria and functional loss determined with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). We include the patients who were questioned about headache characteristics in detail and the patients who have MRI previously. MRI evaluations of plaque localization of the patients were classified retrospectively. Findings: Headache in 54.4% of 320 patients participated in the study are available (23.8% tension-type headache (TTH), 30.6% migraine). When we look at the first three initial symptoms of MS patients, the patients who have polysymptomatic symptoms at the beginning are 25.3%, those with motor symptoms are 23.1%, and patients with optical symptoms are 19.7%. The mean EDSS was 2.6 ± 1.9. When we look the lesion localization, at most pericallosal lesions are present. Mean disease duration was 9.9 years in patients with TTH and 4.5 years in patients with migraine. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean EDSS score was 4.7 in patients with TTH and 1.8 in patients with migraine, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The average number of lesions in the brain was 22.07 in patients with TTH and 15.79 in patients with migraine. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Results: In this study, the frequency of headache in MS patients was found to be greater than the general population and we found a higher incidence of migraine-type headache in these patients. We observed that the tension type of headache is more frequent in MS patients with higher ages, longer disease duration, more plaque numbers, and high EDSS scores.
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COMMENTARY Top

Association between Multiple Sclerosis and Headache: An Unresolved Conundrum p. 1338
Debashish Chowdhury
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304088  PMID:33342865
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

True Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: Report of 17 Surgically Treated Patients and Review of the Literature p. 1340
Shouzhong Guo, Wandong Su, Zhigang Wang
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304098  PMID:33342866
Background and Aims: True posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms have been grouped simply in more common PCoA aneurysms traditionally and have not been well studied as a single entity. The present study was undertaken to describe our experience of diagnosis and surgical treatment of 17 patients and review the literature. Methods: Between Jan 2010 and Dec 2015, we treated 17 true PCoA aneurysms. Diagnosis of these true PCoA aneurysms was confirmed by preoperative angiography and findings intraoperative. Of these 17 aneurysms, 13 were treated with endovascular intervention, the other 4 with microsurgical clipping. Follow-up outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Results: All the 17 true PCoA aneurysms were distal to the junction of internal cerebral artery (ICA) and PCoA. Sixteen patients had fetal PCA. The procedure of microsurgery in 4 patients was uneventful. There were no surgery-related complications or subsequent hemorrhage. 12 aneurysms underwent complete embolization while one got near-complete embolization. There were no aneurysm recurrence as per the follow-up angiograms in all patients. 16 patients recovered well (GOS score 5), and the other one whose preoperative Hunt-Hess grade was IV was moderate disability (GOS score 4). Conclusion: Diagnosis of a true PCoA aneurysm is difficult sometimes because of the vessel-complex visualization. Successful treatment of this entity requires a good apprehension of the location and three-dimensional configurations of the aneurysm, which is somewhat different in detail from a common ICA-PCoA conjunctional aneurysm.
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Prognostic Value of Age and Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Cervical Subaxial Spinal Cord Injuries p. 1345
Rafael Martinez-Perez, Mario Ganau, Natalia Rayo, Víctor S Alemany, Christoph K Boese, Luis R Moscote-Salazar
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304104  PMID:33342867
Background and Objective: The predictive role of a patient's age in spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unclear given the coexistence of potential confounding factors, whether clinical or radiological. Thus, it is the aim of this work to assess the prognostic role of a patient's age against initial radiological features in a traumatic cervical SCI population. Methods: Clinical and radiological data from patients with acute traumatic cervical SCI and a first MRI performed within 48 h of trauma were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were dichotomized according to the length intramedullary lesion, and associations between age and other clinical or radiological prognostic variables were analyzed. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to test the discriminative capacity of the patient age to predict neurological and functional outcomes. Poor functional outcome was defined as a Walking Index Spinal Cord Injury score <1 and poor neurological outcome as the lack of neurological improvement between admission and follow up. Results: 134 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The mean age was 43 years, with a male/female ratio of 4:1. polytrauma and soft tissue injuries were inversely proportional to patient age (P < 0.001). A critical value of 55-year-old was established as a threshold for determining poor functional and neurological outcomes. Across the group of patients with minor intramedullary lesions, older age was correlated with poor functional and neurological outcomes (P < 0.001 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions: Patient age is an important prognostic factor in patients with traumatic cervical SCI. Fifty-five years is the critical cutoff associated with poor prognostic outcome.
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Treatment Outcomes and Follow-Up Compliance after Less than Total and Total Resection of Vestibular Schwannomas in 294 Patients p. 1351
Ankush Gupta, Mazda K Turel, Ranjith K Moorthy, Vivek Joseph, Vedantam Rajshekhar
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304069  PMID:33342868
Background: To document the outcomes and quality of follow-up compliance after planned subtotal, near-total and gross-total resection (STR, NTR, and GTR) of vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Methods: This is a retrospective study of 294 consecutive patients, who underwent excision of a previously untreated VS, between 2005 and 2015. Outcomes including long-term tumor control, facial nerve outcomes, and compliance with follow-up advice were studied. Results: The mean diameter of the tumors was 4.2 cm (±0.8 cm; range: 2.2–7.5 cm). Less than total excision was performed in 55 cases (18.7%), of which NTR was performed in 65% of the cases (n = 36) and STR in the remaining 35%. In the GTR group, 29.3% of patients had a good facial outcome (House and Brackmann [HB] grades 1–3) whereas 81.8% of patients undergoing NTR/STR had a good facial outcome. Follow-up was available in 94.5% of patients undergoing NTR/STR whereas only 69.5% of patients undergoing GTR could be followed up. Only 61.8% of the patients who had NTR/STR were compliant with our follow-up advice and were on either regular radiological surveillance or underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as advised. In this group of patients, those with larger tumors and those who underwent a more extensive resection of their tumor were less likely to be compliant with follow-up advice (P = 0.043 and 0.007, respectively). Among patients who had GTR, nine patients (3.7%) were detected to have tumor recurrence at a mean interval of 5.5 years after surgery. Conclusion: “Incomplete” microsurgical excision followed by SRS is an effective strategy that fulfills the twin objectives of preservation of function and long-term tumor control. Considering follow-up attrition due to various causes, upfront SRS at the first follow-up visit—even for a small residue—may be a prudent strategy in selected patients.
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Feasibility of Double Anterior Odontoid Screw: A CT-Based Morphometric Analysis of the Axis in Adult Indian Population p. 1361
Krishnaveer Singh Choudhary, Ramesh Sharanappa Doddamani, Leve J Devarajan, Mohit Agrawal, Dattaraj Sawarkar, Rajesh Kumar Meena, Satish Varma, Amandeep Kumar, Pankaj Singh, P Sarat Chandra, Shashank Sharad Kale
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304125  PMID:33342869
Background: The fractures of the odontoid process constitute 10% of all cervical spine injuries. Odontoid screw placement, although technically challenging, in indicated cases is the ideal treatment. Hence, a thorough knowledge of the odontoid dimensions is necessary prior to the surgical endeavor, more so for planning double odontoid screws. Materials and Methods: A prospective morphometric analysis of retrospective data of 250 patients was acquired at our institute using Somatom Definition edge 128 slice 64-row detector Siemens CT scanner. The dimensions of the odontoid process were measured at the waist (narrowest portion), widest diameter both in anteroposterior and transverse diameters. The dimensions of the C2 vertebra were measured at the level of the superior and inferior endplate in both the planes. Results: A total of 250 patients were evaluated with age ranging from 1 to 80 years. Males constituted 174 (69.6%) and 76 (30.4%) were females. The mean transverse diameter (TD) at the odontoid waist (narrowest diameter) was 8.66 mm. The mean TD at the widest point of odontoid was 9.68 mm. Mean anteroposterior (AP) diameter 2.5 mm away from the midline on the left side at the level of the waist was 9.51 mm and 2.5 mm on the right of midline was 9.01 mm. The mean AP diameter at the C2 base was 15.824 mm in males and 14.833 mm in females (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Double odontoid screw insertion is feasible in only 36% of Indians in the transverse plane, whereas 98.4% of the odontoids can accommodate double screws in the sagittal plane.
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Quantification of the Asymmetry between Right and Left Cerebral Lateral Ventricles by Indexing Methods p. 1367
Gozde Arslan, Nur Betul Unal Ozdemir
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304115  PMID:33342870
Purpose: To retrospectively analyze hydrocephalus and lateral ventricular asymmetry by measuring the midline shift, Evans index, right and left semi-Evans index, Right and left semi-callosal angles, superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) diameters, and to compare these findings with the control group. Methods: The study included 93 cases with hydrocephalus, 80 cases with asymmetrical lateral ventricles (ALV) and 83 control cases with normal findings who had cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our institute between the years 2011 and 2016. A senior and junior radiologist analyzed the images and performed the measurements, and the results were compared. Results: The cut-off points for the Evans index and right and left semi-Evans indexes for differentiating hydrocephalus and ALV were calculated as 28.68%, 30.77%, and 30.88%, respectively. The septum shift degree was significantly higher in the ALV group compared to the control group (P = 0.010; P < 0.05). ALV or hydrocephalus were not found to be associated with SOV enlargement. The SOVs were not found to be enlarged ipsilateral to asymmetrically enlarged lateral ventricle. Conclusion: Lower Evans and right and left semi-Evans indices are seen in ALV. Despite some limitations, the Evans index could still be used to differentiate hydrocephalus and ALV. Mild ALV is mostly associated with an off-midline septum. SOV diameter and enlargement are not indicators of hydrocephalus or ALV.
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New Onset Focal Seizure Clusters in Children: Expanding the Spectrum of Anti NMDAR Encephalitis p. 1374
Arun Grace Roy, Kollencheri Puthenveetil Vinayan, Sudheeran Kannoth
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304087  PMID:33342871
Introduction: Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (Anti-NMDAR) Encephalitis classically presents with polysymptomatic presentation of behavioral or cognitive changes, seizures, and focal deficits. Large series in adults and children have described the above features. Monosymptomatic presentation of Anti NMDAR encephalitis is rare and in literature single case reports in adults and children are available. Here we report a series of 6 children presenting with seizure alone and thus expanding the clinical spectrum of Anti NMDAR encephalitis. Materials and Methods: This is a a retrospective case series of 6 cases of anti NMDAR encephalitis treated in our institute, which is a tertiary referral center between 2010 and 2014. All the patients with NMDA encephalitis were initially included. The baseline demographics, clinical presentations, investigations (CSF, MRI and EEG), course in the hospital, details of treatment, short and long term outcomes were documented from the available medical records. Children presenting with monosymptomatic seizure clusters were only included in the final analysis. Results: Twenty eight children were diagnosed with ant NMDA R encephalitis during the study period. 22 children had classical polysymptomatic presentations and were not included in this analysis. The remaining 6 children (5 girls and one boy), who presented with only acute seizure clusters were included in the study. All children presented with acute cluster of focal seizures. Four out of six had focal status epilepticus while 2 out of six had recurrent focal seizures. Commonest semiology was clonic seizure in 4/6 and one child had dystonic seizure and one had tonic seizure. All patients were started on steroids and antiepileptic drugs. No other immunomodulators or immunosuppressants were used. On discharge all patients where seizure free and with no focal deficits. Conclusion: This is the first series of Anti NMDAR encephalitis presenting as new onset seizure clusters in children. Unlike the existing literature, these children did not develop any other symptoms. We propose that focal encephalitis could be the reason for this monosymptomatic presentation.
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Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Lumbar Disc Degenerative Disease as an Implication of Low Back Pain: A Prospective Analysis p. 1378
Reddy Ravikanth
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304091  PMID:33342872
Background: The main objectives of this study are MR characterization of disc degeneration and sequelae, analysis of lumbar disc degeneration patterns in patients with low back pain, and evaluation of the extent of involvement. This unique study evaluates the number of discs involved and the Modic changes at prolapsed, degenerated nonprolapsed, and at nondegenerated, nonprolapsed levels. Study Design: A prospective, magnetic resonance imaging–based radiological study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 whole spine and lumbosacral spines were subjected to MRI examination, including spin echo with T1, T2, and STIR sequences. The Modic classification, Pfirrmann disc classification method, Borenstein criteria for central spinal canal stenosis, and Weishaupt Classification for Facet Degeneration were used for evaluation. Results: The commonest level of disc degeneration was L4-L5 (41.2%) and the commonest type was disc protrusion (69.4%). Disc height reduction was common at L5-S1 level (32.2%). Multidisc involvement is the commonest presentation (38.2%) followed by contiguous double level (34.7%) with disc bulges frequently reported at L3-L4 (27.2%) and L4-L5 (26.9%) levels. Majority of discs (56.1%) demonstrated Modic changes at prolapsed levels. Spondylolisthesis was commonly reported at L5-S1 level (87.5%) and was mostly associated with lumbar canal stenosis (38.4%). Posterior osteophytes were frequent at L3-L4 (31.1%) and L5-S1 (31.1%) levels. D12-L1 was least affected (4.1%) in lumbar disc degenerative disease. Conclusion: The clinicians evaluated multiple variables associated with intervertebral disc degeneration and its sequelae such as lumbar canal stenosis and found the evaluation methods to be simple and practical in evaluating lumbar spine degeneration and simple communication.
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Diagnostic Utility of CUSA Specimen in Histopathological Evaluation of Tumors of Central Nervous System p. 1385
Shilpa Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, BN Nandeesh, Manish Beniwal, K V. L. Narasinga Rao, TC Yasha, Sampath Somanna, Vani Santosh, Anita Mahadevan
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304072  PMID:33342873
Introduction: Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA) is a technique used for the surgical treatment of tumors that aids the surgeon in highly selective tumor sampling with minimal injury to surrounding tissues. The utility of the tissue obtained from CUSA for histopathological diagnosis of central nervous system tumors is not as well-known as its surgical benefits. Even though a few studies have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CUSA specimen, these have dealt with very few cases. Methodology: In this study, we nil analysed 73 cases of CNS tumors (glial and non-glial) where CUSA specimen was available for histopathological examination and compared with findings on conventional samples as gold standard. Results: Most frequent types of artefacts induced by CUSA included tissue breakdown resembling necrosis, empty spaces in tissues, and crush artefacts particularly in cellular tumors, that interfered with interpretation. CUSA samples were found optimal for diagnosis of non-glial tumors (45/73), (mainly mesenchymal), wherein the diagnostic utility was comparable to the conventional samples. Difficulties were encountered in glial neoplasms, medulloblastomas and meningiomas. In glial neoplasms (28/73), accurate grading was not possible (9/28, 32%) utilising CUSA samples alone as necrosis and mitosis were not represented. Similarly in meningiomas, mitosis and brain invasion, essential for grading, was not recognizable in CUSA samples. In medulloblastomas, extensive crush artefacts interfered with diagnosis and histological subtyping making it mandatory to examine conventional tissue samples and CUSA. Immunohistochemistry results were optimal with CUSA tissue, wherever performed. Conclusion: The greatest benefits of CUSA, is its ability to sample multiple areas enhancing the yield in heterogenous tumors like gliosarcomas and its utility in tumors at surgically inaccessible sites. As a policy, we recommend that it is beneficial that all surgically excised tissues including those from the CUSA bottle and suction be sent for histopathological analysis for optimising diagnostic accuracy.
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Incidence Study of Epilepsy using the ILAE 2017 Classification of Epilepsies in a Cohort of School Children Accessing Education in Government Primary Schools in South India p. 1389
Jagarlapudi M. K Murthy, Shyam K Jaiswal, Mreddy P Reddy, Surampudi Srikrishna
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304099  PMID:33342874
Background: Recently, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) has proposed new classification schemes for seizures and epilepsy. The applicability of these classification schemes has not been studied in resource-poor countries. Aim: To determine the incidences of epilepsies in a cohort of school children using the ILAE 2017 classification of epilepsies. Materials and Methods: The study cohort included 7,408 school going children [age range 5–15 years]. They were followed for new-onset unprovoked seizure and seizure recurrence through first grade to fifth grade. The data collected during the first visit included clinical details including details of seizure semiology. All children had EEG and contrast CT scan. All these data were used to classify seizure type and epilepsy using ILAE classification schemes. The ILAE 2014 epilepsy definition was used to diagnose epilepsy. The average annual incidence rates (AAIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for epilepsies by onset and by etiology. Results: The AAIR of epilepsy was 57.85 (95% CI 39.0–82.6) per 100,000 population. The AAIRs per 100,000 for different epilepsies by mode of onset were focal epilepsies 25.07 (95% CI 13.35–42.87); generalized epilepsies 13.5 (95% CI 5.43–27.8); and unknown onset epilepsies 19.28 (95% CI 9.25–35.46). The AAIRs per 100,000 of epilepsies by etiology were focal genetic epilepsies 7.71 (95% CI 2.1–19.75); genetic generalized epilepsies 13.5 (95% CI 5.43–27.8); and epilepsies due to structural cause 17.36 (95% CI 9.25–35.46). The lesional epilepsies seen in this cohort were geographically specific to resource-poor countries. The AAIR of epilepsy due to calcific neurocysticercosis (cNCC) was 9.64 (95% CI 3.1–22.5) per 100,000. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the ILAE 2017 classification of epilepsies can be applied in resource-poor countries with limited workup. Lesional epilepsies seen in this study is geographically specific to resource-poor countries.
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Respiratory Assessment of Myasthenia Gravis Patients Using Repetitive Nerve Stimulation of Phrenic and Intercostal Nerves p. 1394
Sunil Pradhan, Sucharita Anand
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304128  PMID:33342875
Background: We evaluated decremental response from phrenic and intercostal nerves using slow repetitive nerve stimulation test (RNST) to look for its diagnostic significance in sero-negative predominantly bulbar myasthenia gravis (MG) with normal peripheral or cranial nerve RNST. Methods: RNST from phrenic and intercostal nerves was performed along with standard RNST from abductor digiti minimi (ADM), trapezius, nasalis and orbicularis oculi muscles in 10 normal individuals (group I), 10 patients with neurological disorders other than MG (group II) and 10 patients with MG (group III). We evaluated the presence of positive response in first two groups (group I and II) and absence of negative response in group III. Spirometry was also performed in MG patients. Results: Mean baseline decrement in I/C RNST in three groups was -2.06±1.33 %, -2.5±2.18% and -27.1±17.9 % respectively. One minute post exercise decrement in I/C RNST in three groups was -2.9±1.36%,-2.9±1.36% and -32.9±17.9% respectively. RNST of phrenic nerve showed mean baseline decrement of -2.1±2.3%, -3.2±2.6 % and -18.3±30.3% in three groups respectively. One minute post exercise decrement percentage were -2.2±1.18% in group I, -4.8±2.18% in group II and -29.2±19.2% in group III. RNST of peripheral nerves were negative in two patients who were bulbar sero-negative MG, however, significant decrement was seen in intercostal and phrenic nerve RNST. Conclusion: Intercostal and phrenic nerve RNST are a better test for assessing respiratory involvement specially in patients presenting with bulbar symptoms and having negative RNST of peripheral nerves.
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Adjunctive Brivaracetam in Indian Patients with Uncontrolled Focal Epilepsy: Results from a Pooled Analysis of Two Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials p. 1400
R Srinivasa, Sanjib Sinha, Satishchandra Parthasarthy, Sudhir Kothari, Rahul Baviskar, Sita Jayalakshmi, Bhawana Sharma, Ravindra K Garg, Joy Desai, Nandan Yardi, Meenakshi Sundaram Salvadeeswaran, Sangeeta Ravat, Mohan Das, Roop Gursahani, Swaroop Suresh, Alok Rasal, Sami Elmoufti
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304103  PMID:33342876
Background: Nearly one-third of patients don't achieve seizure control with existing antiepileptic drugs. Brivaracetam (BRV) is a new member of the racetam class of drug, designed to selectively target SV2A, with binding affinity 15- to 30-fold greater than that of levetiracetam. Objective: This pooled analysis reports efficacy and tolerability data of adjunct BRV (50, 100, and 200 mg/day) compared with placebo in Indian patients with uncontrolled focal epilepsy. Methods: Data of 104 patients (aged 16–80 years) from 2 studies (N01252 and N01358) were pooled for this analysis. The studies comprised an 8-week prospective baseline period, and a 12-week treatment period. The study endpoints included median percent reduction from baseline in focal seizure frequency/28-days, ≥50% responder rate, and seizure freedom (all seizure types). The safety analysis included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Results: The efficacy population comprised 101 patients. In the Indian sub-group population, median percent reduction from baseline in focal seizure frequency/28-days was greater in the BRV dose groups: 39.7% (p = 0.00868), 46.8% (p = 0.00180) and 48.2% (p = 0.05224), for BRV 50, 100, 200 mg/day, respectively, compared with 20.6% for placebo. Responder rates (≥50%) were 38.1%, 45.7%, and 45.5% for BRV 50, 100, and 200 mg/day, respectively, compared with 11.7% for placebo. Complete seizure freedom was reported by 4.8% (1/21) and 2.9% (1/35) of patients on BRV50 and 100 mg/day, respectively, and none out of the 11 and 34 patients on BRV200 mg/day and placebo, respectively. In the safety population (n = 104), most commonly reported TEAEs (reported by ≥5% of patients taking brivaracetam) were headache and cough; most TEAEs were mild or moderate in intensity. Conclusion: This pooled analysis has provided evidence that adjunct brivaracetam, was effective and well-tolerated in Indian patients with uncontrolled focal epilepsy.
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Neurocognitive Outcomes in Adult Quasi -Moyamoya Disease: A Prospective Analysis of Consecutive Cases p. 1409
Jianbin Chen, Junjuan Wang, Xulei Zheng, Yi Liu, Dongsheng Guo
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304116  PMID:33342877
Background: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the neurocognitive outcomes of adult quasi-moyamoya disease (quasi-MMD) patients with autoimmune diseases (AIDs) to help better manage these patients. Methods: We performed a structured battery of neurocognitive tests to analyze and compare the neurocognitive outcomes of adult quasi-MMD patients with AID in our hospital from October 2000 to September 2015. Results: Overall, 27.3% of the neuropsychological test comparisons indicated a significant improvement in cognition, and a significant decline was found in 6%. In 47.4% of comparisons, the observed difference did significantly change the reliable change indices (RCI) before and after anti-autoimmune treatment. We found that the number of patients showing significant improvements, and no change in cognitive outcomes did differ between quasi-MMD and MMD (31.8% vs 14.9% with p = 0.006 and 50.0% vs 66.8% with p = 0.031, respectively; Chi-squared test). The incidence of cognitive decline in quasi-MMD patients (18.2%) did not significantly differ from that in MMD patients (18.3%) (p = 0.982). After adjusting for covariates, including sex, age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors, other comorbidities, and AID, multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that AID was more likely to aggravate the neurocognitive outcome of quasi-MMD patients (p = 0.042, odds ratio (OR) 6.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–62.71). Conclusions: AID was more likely to aggravate the neurocognitive outcome of quasi-MMD patients, and anti-autoimmune treatment could improve long-term neurocognitive outcomes. These findings indicated that AID seemed to be an independent risk factor for the pathological and physiological mechanisms of quasi-MMD.
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NI FEATURE: CENTS (CONCEPTS, ERGONOMICS, NUANCES, THERBLIGS, SHORTCOMINGS) Top

Grid-Based Preconception Counseling Can Facilitate Shared Decision Making for Women with Epilepsy p. 1414
Sanjeev V Thomas
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304110  PMID:33342878
Women with epilepsy (WWE) and their care providers are equally concerned about the risk of seizures and adverse effects of using antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy to the mother and the baby. The risk of death or other complications during the pregnancy period is high when WWE continue to have seizures. Antenatal exposure to valproate and several other AEDs as monotherapy and polytherapy is associated with a higher risk of Major Congenital Malformations (MCM). The risk of MCM is dose dependent for valproate and several other AEDs. Children who were exposed to AEDs in the antenatal period demonstrate impaired intelligence and language functions when examined in early childhood, and this effect endures into the second decade of life also. There is considerable difficulty in communicating the complexities of the benefits and risks of using AEDs during the preconception period and pregnancy to the women and their relatives. In this technical note, we are presenting the grid-based preconception counseling of the risk and benefits of different treatment options to facilitate shared decision making. The clinician elicits the preferences and concerns of WWE in the first column of the grid. The potential outcomes of different treatment options concerning these preferences and concerns are presented in the remaining columns of the grid so that a shared decision can be reached. This option grid provides an opportunity to the WWE to review the options holistically and make appropriate decisions.
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INDIAN PERSPECTIVE Top

An Affordable Neurosurgical Training System for Neurosurgical Residents; The Indian Perspective p. 1418
Krishna M. D. Narayanan, D Balasubramanian
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304122  PMID:33342879
Context: Neurosurgical training in India. Aims: To establish a sustainable, functional, and relatively inexpensive neurosurgical training system. Methods and Materials: The training system involved using a relatively inexpensive stereoscopic microscope and ophthalmological microinstruments , including two jewellers' forceps and a microscissors. Training modules were designed using commonly available materials such as gauze, latex gloves, and chicken wings. Statistical Analysis Used: None. Results: The system proved to be easy to construct, easy-to-use, and highly compact. This system allowed for residents to practice microsuturing and vessel anastomosis and allows the resident to be familiarized with operating under the microscope. Thereby , developing the hand–eye coordination and precise motor control required for neurosurgery as well as the art of appropriate tissue handling. Conclusions: The inexpensive nature of this training system and its inherent simplicity allows for a larger portion of neurosurgical residents in India, without access to sophisticated skills labs, to practice their skills in a controlled environment, without compromising on their ward duties.
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COMMENTARY Top

Situational Analysis in Neurosurgery p. 1423
Manjul Tripathi, Aman Batish
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304075  PMID:33342880
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KNOW YOUR VITAL STATISTICS Top

More on Effect Size: Risk Versus Rate And Hazard Ratio p. 1425
Deepti Vibha, Kameshwar Prasad
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304082  PMID:33342881
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BRIEF REPORTS Top

Delayed Cerebral Infarction Following Trans-Sylvian Surgery for Craniopharyngioma Presenting as Status Epilepticus p. 1428
DK Satpathy, C Mitra, P Samal, SB Pattnaik, BB Mohanty, SD Acharya
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304097  PMID:33342882
The postoperative period after craniopharyngioma surgery has a high likelihood of complications and its management can be challenging. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy who was operated for craniopharyngioma. In the postoperative period he developed lacunar infarct, endocrine disturbances, delayed vasospasm leading to cerebral infarction and status epilepticus. The likely cause of status epilepticus was likely delayed cerebral infarction compounded with dyselectrolytemia. We discuss the possible etiology of delayed cerebral infarction.
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Familial Prion Disease: First Indian Kindred with Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker Syndrome p. 1431
Sameer Bhatia, Sunita Bijarnia-Mahay, Sudisha Dubey, Mandaville Gourie-Devi
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304068  PMID:33342883
Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker (GSS) syndrome is a devastating hereditary prion disease, presenting in 4th–5th decade with progressive ataxia and dementia. Pathogenic variants in the PRNP gene lead to aggregation of misfolded prion protein which results in neurodegeneration and death within a few years of onset. A key feature of prion disorders is conversion of normal prion protein (PrPc) into its misfolded form (PrPSc). Genetic modifiers include methionine at position 129 in prion protein and octapeptide repeats. We present an Indian kindred with c. 305C > T, p.Pro102Leu mutation in PRNP gene causing GSS in multiple members and discuss the impact of the polymorphism at position 129 on the severity of illness.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Primary Suprasellar Hypothalamic CNS Lymphoma in an Immunocompetent Adult: A Case Report and Review of Literature p. 1435
Chandan B Mohanty, Kapil D Muley, Chandrasekhar E Deopujari
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304120  PMID:33342884
Background: Primary suprasellar central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) of the hypothalamus is a rare entity. Material and Methods: We report a case of a 49-year-old, healthy male presented with features of diabetes insipidus. Imaging features showed a mass in the suprasellar region involving the hypothalamus mainly tuber cinereum and infundibulum. Results: Preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed increased uptake in the mass. Biopsy revealed a diffuse type-B PCNSL. The present case emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis of hypothalamic lymphoma and the utility of FDG PET-CT in such situations. Conclusion: To our knowledge, only eight cases of suprasellar hypothalamic PCNSL have been reported in the literature.
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Solitary Intracranial Juvenile Xanthogranuloma Masquerading as Low-Grade Glioma – A Rare Case Report p. 1439
Salapathi Shanmugam, Rajeshwari Buttannavar, Ghosh Mitra, Siddhartha Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304109  PMID:33342885
Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a rare, benign histiocytic disorder of young children. It is most often present with cutaneous involvement of the head, neck and trunk region. Systemic JXG causes cutaneous lesions with extracutaneous involvements frequently seen in the orbit, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and bones. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is uncommon and is usually seen as a component of systemic disease. Isolated JXG of CNS is very rare and only few cases have been reported till date. Here we report a case of isolated solitary intracranial JXG mimicking clinically and radiologically as a low-grade glioma with no signs of cutaneous or other systemic involvement. Gross total excision of the tumour was done and final diagnosis was made by histopathological and immunohistochemical examination. CNS involvement of JXG can cause significant morbidity and mortality. These cases are usually misdiagnosed on radiology as glioma or meningioma and the diagnosis is usually made by histopathology. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and these patients should be on long-term follow-up since the natural history of the disease is still unknown. The case is presented here for its rarity and for its clinical significance.
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Intracranial Dural-based Convexity Chondroma p. 1443
Akshay V Kulkarni, Nishant Sadashiv, B Indira Devi, Shilpa Rao
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304106  PMID:33342886
Intracranial chondromas arising from the convexity with dural attachments are extremely rare tumors with scarce reports in the literature. They have atypical radiological findings that can often preclude the preoperative diagnosis. Complete resection is treatment with a good prognosis.
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Postural Sway and Bobblehead Movement: Unique Presentation of Bilateral Tendo-Achilles Rupture p. 1445
Aditya V Nair, Appaswamy T Prabhakar, Shaik A Iqbal, Ajith Sivadasan, Vivek Mathew
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304100  PMID:33342887
The human body requires equilibrium to assume the vertical posture and balance for walking which is maintained by righting reflexes and supporting reactions, respectively. Postural movements around the ankle is responsible for maintaining forward and backward leaning in an upright posture. We report a case of postural sway and bobblehead movement following bilateral tendo-Achilles rupture.
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Familial Giant Enchondroma of Thoracic Spine: A Rare Manifestation of a Rare Disease p. 1447
Saswat K Dandpat, Abhidha Shah, Dikpal Jadhav, Naina Goel, Atul Goel
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304070  PMID:33342888
We present a rare case of spinal enchondromatosis in a 15-year-old boy. The patient presented with spastic paraparesis. He also had multiple bony swellings over the long bones. On inquiry it was found that his father had enchondromatosis. Such a familial form of enchondromatosis has not been previously described in the literature.
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Persistent Falcine Sinus-The Variant Venous Structure With Anterior Interhemispheric Type And The Classic Posterior Location: Report of Two Cases p. 1450
Dev P Sharma, Bejoy Thomas, Arun B Prasad, C Kesavadas
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304081  PMID:33342889
A 14-year-old girl presented with suspected dermoid cyst of scalp underwent Neuroimaging to look for intracranial communication. Her neurological examination was essentially normal. On Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI), an anterior persistent falcine sinus(PFS) was noted draining into the middle portion of the superior sagittal sinus. There was developmental venous anomaly (DVA) involving the right frontal lobe. To our knowledge, it is a rare instance of the combination of an anterior persistent falcine sinus and associated DVA.
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Heteropagus Twins: A Tale of Two p. 1453
Akash B Pati, Santosh K Mahalik, Suprava Naik, Kanishka Das
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304090  PMID:33342890
Parasitic twin is a rare occurrence, with rachispagus being the rarest. The surgical approach and timing are not standardized. We describe the management of two cases of rachispagus and review the sparse literature on this entity. Both cases were operated early because of the social burden on the family as well as difficulty in nursing care. The first patient had associated major systemic malformations in the autosite (cerebral, spinal and cardiac), and succumbed in the postoperative period. The entity was isolated in the second who is doing well.
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Large Spinal Abscess in a Neonate p. 1456
Bikasa B Triapthy, Subrat K Sahoo, Manoj K Mohanty, Mantu Jain, Sangeeta Sahoo
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304112  PMID:33342891
Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess is rare entity in neonates. These are surgical emergency in which early diagnosis and prompt decompression is necessary to avoid permanent cord damage. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of paraplegia supported by radiological findings on an MRI. We found a large extra spinal abscess in an infant that on further evaluation showed a communicating epidural component, yet the baby was neurologically intact. The abscess was drained in emergency with clearance of epidural component and appropriate antibiotics instituted for Streptococcus pyogenes as per sensitivity. The patient is doing well at 6 months follow up.
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Modified Method of Multiple Cranial Burr Holes for Treatment of Total Scalp Avulsion p. 1459
Harshad Patil, Sunil Rathore, Nitin Garg
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304076  PMID:33342892
Scalp avulsion is a rare but severe injury. It usually happens while using industrial or agriculture machinery. Scalp avulsion results from hair entrapment in a rotating machine. There are various options for treatment of scalp avulsion. Herein, the authors present a case of total scalp avulsion which was treated by multiple trephination technique using neurosurgical burr.
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An Unusual Case of Penetrating Injury Skull with Metallic RCC Rod in A Child – A Rare Case Scenario with Review of Literature p. 1462
Ashish Acharya, Ravindra K Bind, Anil Sofat, Paul S John PS, Sarvpreet S Grewal
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304107  PMID:33342893
Penetrating head injuries can be the result of numerous intentional or unintentional events, including missile wounds, stab wounds, and motor vehicle or occupational accidents (nails, screw-drivers). Penetrating head injuries in children constitute even a smaller part of the total number of traumatic head injuries seen in casualty. We report a case of neuro-trauma who was operated in our institution. A 6-year-old female presented in casualty with an iron rod penetrating into the skull.
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Lateral Ventricle Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT): Case Report and Review of Literature p. 1465
Arunav Sharma, Mukund N Sable, Raghav Singla, Chinmaya Dash, Rabi Narayan Sahu
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304127  PMID:33342894
A 4-year-old male child presented with features of raised intracranial pressure due to tumor in the left lateral ventricle with shunt blockage. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done earlier (one month ago). Craniotomy and gross total excision of the tumor was achieved. Histopathological examination was suggestive of Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid tumor. Patient relatives were not compliant with the advice for adjuvant therapy and patient expired after three months of definitive surgery due to aggressive course of the disease. To the best of our knowledge only six cases of AT/RT of the lateral ventricle in pediatric population has been described in literature. The tumor may mimic radiologically with benign pathology and can have an aggressive course with poor outcome. Differential diagnosis of AT/RT must be kept in cases of lateral ventricle tumor in pediatric population.
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A Case of Pregabalin-Induced Parkinsonism p. 1469
Buse Cagla ARI, Fusun Mayda Domac, Gulay Ozgen Kenangil
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304071  PMID:33342895
Drug-induced parkinsonism is the second common movement disorder after Parkinson's disease. It occurs due to the use of not only neuroleptics but also some other medications as pregabalin. Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug and a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and its use decreases the release of several neurotransmitters. In this case report, we present a 53-year-old female patient with the signs of parkinsonism following pregabalin treatment. Drug-induced parkinsonism was diagnosed based on the clinical features, investigations, and resolution of the complaints. The symptoms relieved after the treatment stopped at a follow-up of 10 days. Due to the rare report of pregabalin-induced parkinsonism, we aim to enhance clinicians' awareness of pregabalin's probable side effects.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR Top

A Rare Entity: Idiopathic Spinal Cord Herniation p. 1472
Huseyin Dogu, Nuriye G Ozdemir, Hakan Yilmaz, Okan Turk, Nail Demirel, Ibrahim B Atci, Ayhan Kocak
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304129  PMID:33342896
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Calcifying Pseudoneoplasms of the Neuraxis- A Rare Case and Review of Its Literature p. 1475
Syed Khizar Uz Zaman
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304118  PMID:33342897
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Simulation in Endovascular Neurosurgery Using Skull Bone: A Novel Concept p. 1479
Chinmaya Dash, Sudipta Mohakud, Ayusman Satapathy, Rabi N Sahu
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304130  PMID:33342898
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Microsurgical Clipping of Eight Intracranial Aneurysms in a Patient p. 1481
Narayanam Anantha Sai Kiran, Vinay Hegde, Vivek Raj, Alangar S Hegde
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304102  PMID:33342899
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The “HIS and HER Cart”—Solution to Pandora's Box in Acute Ischemic Stroke Intervention p. 1484
Sharath GG Kumar, Shriram Varadharajan
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304123  PMID:33342900
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”Spontaneous” Snout: A Frontal Release Phenomenon p. 1486
Madhivanan Karthigeyan, Pravin Salunke, Aastha Takkar
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304119  PMID:33342901
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Persisting Postoperative Pneumocephalus after Cranioplasty in Sunken Skin Flap Syndrome p. 1488
Wen-jian Zheng, Liang-ming Li, Shao-hua Lin
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304089  PMID:33342902
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Iatrogenic Occipital Neuralgia: How to Avoid Injury in Retromastoid Approach? p. 1490
Parth Jani, Manjul Tripathi, Babita Ghai, Ninad Patil, Aman Batish, Sandeep Mohindra
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304093  PMID:33342903
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Acute Stroke Presenting as Isolated Orthostatic Negative Myoclonus p. 1493
Vikram V Holla, Shailesh Shivraj Pene, Naveen Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304092  PMID:33342904
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Appearing and Disappearing Ruptured Internal Carotid Artery Bifurcation Aneurysm: Is it Really Fugacious? p. 1495
Anshu Mahajan, Gaurav Goel, Biplab Das, Karanjit S. Narang
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304094  PMID:33342905
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Intracerebral Schwannoma with Perivascular Meningioangiomatosis-like Extension in Surrounding Glia p. 1497
Kiran P Malhotra, Hardeep S Malhotra, Rakesh K Singh, Shivi Mohini, Nuzhat Husain
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304096  PMID:33342906
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Natural Prognosis of Pediatric Rotational Vertebral Artery Occlusion: A Reversible Case Report p. 1500
Xiuyun Mo, Weikang Huang, Ran Li, Hao Lin, Jingxin Zhong
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304095  PMID:33342907
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Intracranial Eye p. 1502
Kokkula Praneeth, Rekapalli Rajasekhar, Ashish Aggarwal, Parth Jani, Navneet Singla
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304121  PMID:33342908
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Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency and Ectopic Posterior Pituitary p. 1504
Sravan K Marupaka, Vijaysheker Reddy Danda, Jayendra A Thiru, Kiran K Ramineni, Ravikanth Jakkani
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304108  PMID:33342909
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A Rare Case of Caudal Regression Syndrome p. 1506
Krati Khandelwal, Gaurav Khandelwal, Sunita Purohit
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304074  PMID:33342910
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Neurocutaneous Melanosis: Cutaneous and Neuroimaging Findings p. 1508
Harikrishnan Ramachandran, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Sunesh E Radhakrishnan
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304124  PMID:33342911
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Linear Trigeminal Pontine Lesion in Multiple Sclerosis-related Trigeminal Neuropathy p. 1509
Hung Youl Seok, Mi-Yeon Eun
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304117  PMID:33342912
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”Black Brain and Dark Nerve”—Think Hemosiderosis p. 1511
Thomas Mathew, Saji K. John, Sharath Kumar, Mithun Sekhar
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304114  PMID:33342913
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The History of the Gamma Knife p. 1513
Manjul Tripathi
DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.304067  
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