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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 61  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 548--550

Armored brain-Massive bilateral calcified chronic subdural hematoma in a patient with ventriculoperotoneal shunt

Kanwaljeet Garg, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Raghav Singla, P Sarat Chandra, Manmohanjit Singh, Guru Dutt Satyarthhe, Hitesh Kumar Gurjar, Bhawani Shankar Sharma 
 Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029, India

Correspondence Address:
Pankaj Kumar Singh
Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110 029
India




How to cite this article:
Garg K, Singh PK, Singla R, Chandra P S, Singh M, Satyarthhe GD, Gurjar HK, Sharma BS. Armored brain-Massive bilateral calcified chronic subdural hematoma in a patient with ventriculoperotoneal shunt.Neurol India 2013;61:548-550


How to cite this URL:
Garg K, Singh PK, Singla R, Chandra P S, Singh M, Satyarthhe GD, Gurjar HK, Sharma BS. Armored brain-Massive bilateral calcified chronic subdural hematoma in a patient with ventriculoperotoneal shunt. Neurol India [serial online] 2013 [cited 2022 Sep 26 ];61:548-550
Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2013/61/5/548/121950


Full Text

Sir,

Calcification in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is uncommon and occurs in about 0.3%-2.7% cases. [1] This complication has rarely been reported in patients with CSDH following ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus.

A 24-year-old male presented with progressive bilateral vision loss and polyuria since 2001. Investigation at other facility showed visual acuity of 6/9 in both eyes and imaging revealed communicating hydrocephalous for which he underwent right parietal ventriculoperitoneal shunt in 2004. This was followed by improvement in both vision and polyuria. He was doing well till 2008, when he again started having polyuria and painless progressive visual diminution. He presented to us in 2012 with these complaints, and the visual acuity was perception of hand movements close to face with bilateral secondary optic atrophy. Noncontrast brain computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral frontoparietal calcified chronic subdural hematoma and right parietal shunt in situ [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].{Figure 1}{Figure 2}

Calcified CSDH is also described as armored brain or Matrioska head. [1] Taha [2] could find only 18 such cases in the literature till 2012. The exact mechanism of calcifications is still an enigma. Microscopic calcium deposits within the membranes of the hematoma may proceed to extensive calcification and even ossifications in some cases. An underlying metabolic abnormality and poor circulation with delayed resorption of the hematoma fluid are other putative factors.

These patients may be asymptomatic and when symptomatic present with signs of elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, and mental retardation. Symptoms may develop many years after shunt surgery. [3] CT or magnetic resonance imaging confirms diagnosis and can also differentiate it from other calcified extraaxial lesions like calcified epidural hematoma, meningioma, and malignant tumors. [4] The management of calcified chronic subdural hematoma is a matter of controversy and it is recommended that surgical intervention should be limited to patients who have progressive neurological deficits or evidence of increased intracranial pressure.

References

1Sharma RR, Mahapatra A, Pawar SJ, Sousa J, Athale SD. Symptomatic calcified subdural hematomas. Pediatr Neurosurg 1999;31:150-4.
2Taha MM. Armored brain in patients with hydrocephalus after shunt surgery: Review of the literatures. Turk Neurosurg 2012;22:407-10.
3Amr R, Maraqa L, Choudry Q. 'Armoured brain'. A case report of calcified chronic subdural hematoma. Pediatr Neurosurg 2008;44:88-9.
4Kaspera W, Bierzynska-Macyszyn G, Majchrzak H. Chronic calcified subdural empyema occurring 46 years after surgery. Neuropathology 2005;25:99-102.