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Figure 6: Simulation of expanded endonasal approach for anterior skull base surgery. (a) The middle turbinate inside the left nasal cavity revealed under microscope. The lateral was the middle nasal meatus. The medial was the common nasal meatus and nasal septum. (b) Sagittal plane displayed the maximum extent of resection of the middle turbinate (shown in dotted line). (c) Exposure of the anterior ethmoid sinus and anterior ethmoidal artery. (d) Morphological characteristics of the anterior ethmoidal artery in the ethmoid roof examined after removing the anterior ethmoid sinus mucosa. (e) Morphological characteristics of the posterior ethmoidal artery in the ethmoid roof examined after removing the posterior ethmoid sinus mucosa. (f) The region around the midline anterior skull base exposed after the lamina cribiosa and the anterior basicranial bone was opened upward. (g) The dura mater was removed after the removal of the anterior skull base. (h) The exposed olfactory nerve and pia mater. (i) The olfactory nerve and frontal bottom that exposed after anterior basicranial craniotomy. Brain tissue (BT), dura mater (DM), internal carotid artery (ICA), inferior turbinate (IT), middle turbinate (MT), nasal septum (NS), optic chiasma (OC), olfactory nerve (OFN), olfactory nerve (ON), posterior ethmoid sinus (PE), posterior ethmoidal artery (PEA), pia mater (PM), sphenoid sinus (SS), superior turbinate (ST)

Figure 6: Simulation of expanded endonasal approach for anterior skull base surgery. (a) The middle turbinate inside the left nasal cavity revealed under microscope. The lateral was the middle nasal meatus. The medial was the common nasal meatus and nasal septum. (b) Sagittal plane displayed the maximum extent of resection of the middle turbinate (shown in dotted line). (c) Exposure of the anterior ethmoid sinus and anterior ethmoidal artery. (d) Morphological characteristics of the anterior ethmoidal artery in the ethmoid roof examined after removing the anterior ethmoid sinus mucosa. (e) Morphological characteristics of the posterior ethmoidal artery in the ethmoid roof examined after removing the posterior ethmoid sinus mucosa. (f) The region around the midline anterior skull base exposed after the lamina cribiosa and the anterior basicranial bone was opened upward. (g) The dura mater was removed after the removal of the anterior skull base. (h) The exposed olfactory nerve and pia mater. (i) The olfactory nerve and frontal bottom that exposed after anterior basicranial craniotomy. Brain tissue (BT), dura mater (DM), internal carotid artery (ICA), inferior turbinate (IT), middle turbinate (MT), nasal septum (NS), optic chiasma (OC), olfactory nerve (OFN), olfactory nerve (ON), posterior ethmoid sinus (PE), posterior ethmoidal artery (PEA), pia mater (PM), sphenoid sinus (SS), superior turbinate (ST)